Astronomical Calendar - A.D. 2020

Dominical Letters: "E" & "D" - Used in a Perpetual Calendar. For Leap Year of 2020.


Authored By Glenn A. Walsh *** Sponsored By Friends of the Zeiss
Electronic Mail: < astrocalendar@planetarium.cc > *** Internet Web Cover Page: < http://www.planetarium.cc >
This Internet Web Page: < http://buhlplanetarium4.tripod.com/astrocalendar/2020.html >
SpaceWatchtower Blog
2020 January

Internet Web Site Master Index for the History of
The Buhl Planetarium and Institute of Popular Science, Pittsburgh

SpaceWatchtower Blog


ASTRONOMICAL / CALENDAR EVENTS --

A.D. 2020

January ** February ** March

April ** May ** June

July ** August ** September

October ** November ** December


2020

Equinoxes (EQX), Solstices (SOLC), and Cross-Quarter (XQ) Days

Chronological Cycles and Eras

Astro Calendar
Current Month

Astro Calendar
Archives


Constellations
For Year

Star Charts
For Year

Moon Phases:
Archive * 2020 * Today

Planets, Stars, Sky Events:
Today *** This Week

Solar System *** Archive

Occultations:

Archive * 2020

10,000-Year
Calendar

Astronomy Links

Science Links

Astronomical Glossary
Click here for links to the Moon, planets, star clusters, stars, and other astronomical terms referred to in this Astronomical Calendar.

2020 Equinoxes (EQX), Solstices (SOLC), and Cross-Quarter (XQ) Days - Archive

* Sun., Feb. 2 - Traditional Astronomical Cross-Quarter Day Imbolc, and also Candlemas, better known as Groundhog Day. (First traditional Astronomical Cross-Quarter Day of year; approximate mid-way point in Winter season: Feb. 1 Eve - Feb. 2).
(Groundhog Day at Gobler's Knob, Punxsutawney PA 15767, home of Punxsutawney Phil: - Sunrise: 7:26 a.m. EST / 12:26 UTC) .

* Mon., Feb. 3, 3:55 a.m. EST / Feb. 4, 8:55 UTC - Actual Astronomical Cross-Quarter Day (First actual Astronomical Cross-Quarter Day of year; mid-way point in Winter season: ~Feb. 4).
Traditional Cross-Quarter Day.

* Thur., March 19, 11:50 p.m. EDT / March 20, 3:50 UTC - Vernal Equinox - Season of Spring begins in Earth's Northern Hemisphere: beginning of New Year (solar calendar) in Afghanistan and Iran. (~March 20)

* Fri., May 1 - Traditional Astronomical Cross-Quarter Day Beltaine, better known as May Day - Second traditional Astronomical Cross-Quarter Day of year; approximate mid-way point in Spring season (May 1).

* Mon., May 4, 8:49 p.m. EDT / May 5, 0:49 UTC - Actual Astronomical Cross-Quarter Day Beltaine, better known as May Day - Second traditional Astronomical Cross-Quarter Day of year; mid-way point in Spring season (~May 5-6).
Traditional Cross-Quarter Day.

* Sat., June 20, 5:44 a.m. EDT / 21:44 UTC - Summer Solstice - Season of Summer begins in Earth's Northern Hemisphere (~June 21).
Also see 1985-1991: Summer "Solstice Day," Annual Free Day at Buhl Planetarium.

* Sat., Aug. 1 - Astronomical Mid-Point of Summer - Traditional Astronomical Cross-Quarter Day, also known as “Lammas” (in the United Kingdom) and “Lughnassad” (in Ireland). Considered approximate date of First Harvest (third traditional cross-quarter day of the year), approximately between the Midsummer Solstice and the Autumnal Equinox (July 31 Eve - Aug. 1).

* Thur., Aug. 6, 9:04 p.m. EDT / Aug. 7, 1:04 UTC - Astronomical Mid-Point of Summer - Actual Astronomical Cross-Quarter Day (halfway between the June Solstice and September Equinox: ~Aug. 6 to 7).
Traditional Cross-Quarter Day.

* Tue., Sept. 22 - Falls Prevention Awareness Day (First day of Fall: ~Sept. 22-23).

* Tue., Sept. 22, 9:31 a.m. EDT / 13:31 UTC - Autumnal Equinox - Season of Autumn begins in Earth's Northern Hemisphere. (~Sept. 22)
Also see: Harvest Moon.

* Oct. 31 / Nov. 1 / Nov. 2 - Traditional Astronomical Cross-Quarter Day Samhain or "All-Hallowsmas", better known as Halloween (Oct. 31 - "All Hallows Eve"), All-Saints Day (Nov. 1), All-Souls Day (Nov. 2) (fourth and last traditional cross-quarter day of year).

What is a "Cross-Quarter Day" ?
What is the Astronomical significance of
Halloween, All-Saints Day, and All-Souls Day?
Link 1 *** Link 2 *** Link 3 *** Link 4

* Sat., Nov. 7, 5:56 p.m. EST / 22:56 UTC - Actual Astronomical Cross-Quarter Day (fourth and last actual cross-quarter day of the year: ~Nov. 6-7).
Traditional Cross-Quarter Day.

* Mon., Dec. 21 - Homeless Persons' Memorial Day. (First day of Winter; longest night of the year: ~Dec. 21)

* Mon., Dec. 21, 5:02 a.m. EST / Dec. 22, 10:02 UTC - Winter Solstice - Season of Winter begins in Earth's Northern Hemisphere. (~Dec. 21-22)
Also see: "The Stars of Winter" and "The Star of Bethlehem" Planetarium Sky Dramas (web sites include entire planetarium show scripts), performed each Winter in the Theater of the Stars of Pittsburgh's original Buhl Planetarium and Institute of Popular Science.

Chronological Cycles and Eras Corresponding to Anno Domini (A.D.) 2020 or 2020 Common Era (C.E.) - Archive

Unless otherwise indicated, all dates are given in terms of the Gregorian Calendar.
For recent years, January 14 of the Gregorian Calendar corresponds to January 1 of the Julian Calendar.

Dominical Letters: "E" & "D" - Used in a Perpetual Calendar. For Leap Year of 2020.
Epact: 5.
Golden Number (Lunar Cycle): 7.
Roman Indiction: 13.
Solar Cycle (28-year cycle of the Julian calendar): 13.
Julian Period (Year of): 6733.

Byzantine Year 7529 Begins Sept. 14.
Jewish Year (A.M.) 5781 Begins at local Sunset, Sept. 17.
Chinese / Asian Lunar New Year (Lunar Calendar) - Year of the Rat 4718 Begins Jan. 25.
Roman A.U.C. (Dates from the founding of the City of Rome) Year 2773 Begins Jan. 14.
Nabonassar Year 2769 Begins April 18.
Japanese (Heisei) Year 2680 - Begins January 1.
Grecian Year (Selucidae) 2332 Begins Sept. 14 (or Oct. 14).
Indian Year (Saka) 1942 Begins March 21.
Diocletian Era (Era of the Martyrs) Year 1737 Begins Sept. 11.
Islamic (Hegira) (FCNA date) Year 1442 Begins at first viewing of lunar crescent (New Moon) on evening (after local Sunset) of Aug. 18.
Baha'i Year 177 Begins at local Sunset on March 18.

NEWS: Astronomy, Space, Science

History of Buhl Planetarium and Institute of Popular Science, Pittsburgh


A.D. 2020

Astronomical Calendar: 2020 January
Monthly Observances This Month

Quadrantid Meteor Shower: Jan. 3 to 4

Moon Phases:
Today *** Calendar Month

Planets, Stars, Sky Events:
Today *** This Week
Solar System *** Occultations
Constellations *** Star Chart

View International Space Station (ISS)
Rocket Launches This Month: Link 1 *** Link 2 *** Link 3 *** Link 4

Equinoxes (EQX), Solstices (SOLC), and Cross-Quarter (XQ) Days For This Year.
Chronological Cycles and Eras For This Year.
Dominical Letters: "E" & "D" - Used in a Perpetual Calendar. For This Leap Year.

Astronomical Glossary
of Terms Used

Astronomical Calendar
Archives

Other
Astronomical Calendars: Link 1 * Link 2

10,000-Year Calendar

Rise & Set Times

Current Sky Events & Astro Phenomena

News: Astronomy, Space, Science --

Weekly: SpaceWatchtower Blog

Daily: SpaceWatchtower Twitter Feed

History of Pittsburgh's Original
Buhl Planetarium and Institute of Popular Science

Astronomy Links

Science Links


a.m. = Ante-Meridiem (Morning: Midnight to a moment before Noon)

p.m. = Post-Meridiem (Afternoon & Evening: a moment after Noon to a moment before Midnight of the next day)

EST = Eastern Standard Time *** EDT = Eastern Daylight Saving Time *** UTC = Coordinated Universal Time

SPECIAL NOTES:
(1) All astronomical or sky observations are always weather-permitting.
(2) For calendar entries which describe a relationship between two or more celestial objects, unless otherwise noted all relationships between celestial objects are visual relationships as seen from Earth only.


* Nov. 1 to April 30 - Use of life jackets by every person on a small boat (less than 16 feet in length), during cold-weather months, is mandatory. (Nov. 1 to April 30)

* Tue., 2019 Dec. 31 - Make Up Your Mind Day. (Dec. 31)

* Tue., 2019 Dec. 31 - Eve of New Year's Day (Traditional). (Dec. 31)

* Tue., 2019 Dec. 31, 7:00:00 p.m. EST / 2020 Jan. 1, 0:00:00 UTC - Marks the beginning of the New Year by the Coordinated Universal Time scale, the time scale used by many scientists. (Dec. 31)

* Wed., Jan. 1 - Feast of the Circumcision of Christ - Eighth day of the 12 days of Christmas: Dec. 25 to Jan. 5. During the Gregorian Calendar reform, Pope Gregory XIII, chose the Feast of the Circumcision of Christ as the beginning of the New Year in the Roman Catholic Church's Liturgical Year; previously, the Feast of the Annunciation on March 25 (also the Vernal Equinox in the "original" Julian Calendar adopted by the second King of Rome, Numa Pompilius, in the 7th century B.C.) had been considered the beginning of the New Year. (Jan. 1)

* Wed., Jan. 1 - Last day of Kwanzaa - Week-long holiday observance honoring African-American heritage. (Dec. 26 to Jan. 1)

* Wed., Jan. 1 (1863) - Anniversary: Emancipation Proclamation issued by U.S. President Abraham Lincoln during the American Civil War, which decreed that slaves in the rebellious states are free forever. (Jan. 1)

* Wed., Jan. 1 - First Day Hikes in America’s State Parks. (Jan. 1)

* Wed., Jan. 1, 12:00:00 Midnight (0:00:00) Prevailing Local Time - For Eastern Standard Time (EST) Zone in North America: 12:00:00 Midnight EST / 5:00:00 Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) which correlates with 12:00:00 Midnight EST - New Year's Day: New Calendar Year begins. (Jan. 1)

* Wed., Jan. 1, 8:30 p.m. EST / Jan. 2, 41:30 UTC - Moon at apogee: 251,394 statute miles / 404,580 kilometers.

* Thur., Jan. 2, 11:45 a.m. EST / Jan. 3, 4:45 UTC - Primary Moon Phase: First Quarter.

* Jan. 3 Evening to Jan. 4 Morning - (Best viewing: Midnight to Dawn) - Peak of Quadrantid Meteor Shower. (Jan. 3 to 4)

* Sat., Jan. 4 - Latest time of sunrise, for the year, for locales (such as Pittsburgh) at or near +40 North Latitude. (Jan. 4)

* Sun., Jan. 5 - National Bird Day. (Jan. 5)

* Sun., Jan. 5, 2:47 a.m. EST / 7:47 UTC - Earth at perihelion (closest Earth approach to the Sun in New Year): 91,398,199 statute miles / 147,091,144 kilometers. (Jan. 2 to 5)

* Sun., Jan. 5, Evening - "12th Night" of Christmas; end of the 12 days of Christmas, which began on Christmas Day. (Jan. 5)

* Mon., Jan. 6 - Feast of the Epiphany; the day after the "12th Night" of Christmas. Tradition celebrates Epiphany as day the Magi arrived in Bethlehem to present gifts to the Christ child. (Jan. 6)

* Mon., Jan. 6 - National Returns Day - When the most UPS returns packages are sent back to retailers. (Jan. 5 to 6)

* Tue., Jan. 7 - Orthodox Christmas - As determined by Julian Calendar. (Jan. 7)

* Tue., Jan. 7, 4:09 p.m. EST / 21:09 UTC - Star Aldebaran 3.0 degrees south of the Moon.

* Wed., Jan. 8 (1918) - Mount Wilson Observatory Astronomer Harlow Shapley discovered true magnitude of Milky Way Galaxy and true location of Earth and our Solar System in the Milky Way Galaxy.
On 1941 November 19, Harvard College Observatory Director Harlow Shapley delivered the keynote address at the dedication for a rather unique 10-inch Siderostat-Type Refractor Telescope at Pittsburgh's original Buhl Planetarium and Institute of Popular Science. (Jan. 8)

* Wed., Jan. 8 (1851), 2:00 a.m. Paris Time - Earth's Rotation Day - Anniversary: French physicist Jean Leon Foucault develops a simple device to finally demonstrate and prove that the Earth rotates on its axis: Foucault Pendulum. He demonstrated the Foucault Pendulum, before scientists at the Paris Observatory, on 1851 February 3.
Near the end of his life, Jean Leon Foucault also developed the Siderostat-type Refractor Telescope. (Jan. 8)

* Thur., Jan. 9 (1793) - First balloon flight in America. (Jan. 9)

* Fri., Jan. 10 (1920) - Founding of the League of Nations. (Jan. 10)

* Fri., Jan. 10, 10:00 a.m. EST / 15:00 UTC - Mercury at superior conjunction (Mercury not visible, even with a telescope).

* Fri., Jan. 10, 2:09:59.2 p.m. EST / 19:09:59.2 UTC - Time of Greatest Eclipse for dim Penumbral Eclipse of the Moon / Penumbral Lunar Eclipse, visible in Europe, Asia, Africa, and Australia. Even at peak eclipse, Full Moon brightness dims only slightly. This is the first of four Penumbral Lunar Eclipses in 2020. More information: Link 1 *** Link 2 *** Link 3
NOTE: IT IS SAFE TO LOOK DIRECTLY AT THIS, OR ANY, LUNAR ECLIPSE / ECLIPSE OF THE MOON WITH THE NAKED EYES (ONE-POWER), BINOCULARS, OR A TELESCOPE.

* Fri., Jan. 10, 2:21 p.m. EST / 19:21 UTC - Primary Moon Phase: Full Moon - Wolf Moon.

* Fri., Jan. 10, 9:26 p.m. EST / Jan. 11, 2:26 UTC - Star Pollux 5.3 degrees north of the Moon.

* Sat., Jan. 11 - Learn Your Name in Morse Code Day. (Jan. 11)

* Sat., Jan. 11 - National Milk Day. (Jan. 11)

* Sat., Jan. 11 - National Human Trafficking Awareness Day. (Jan. 11)

* Sat., Jan. 11 - Rocket Launch (Estimated Launch Date): SpaceX Falcon 9 critical Crew Dragon In-Flight Abort test flight from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Florida.

* Sat., Jan. 11, 6:54 p.m. EST / Jan. 11, 23:54 UTC - Beehive Open Star Cluster 1.0 degree south of the Moon.

* Mon., Jan. 13 - National Clean Off Your Desk Day. (2nd Monday of January)

* Mon., Jan. 13 - New Year's Eve, according to the Julian Calendar. (Jan. 13)

* Mon., Jan. 13, 6:37 a.m. EST / 11:37 UTC - Star Regulus 3.8 degrees south of the Moon.

* Mon., Jan. 13, 9:00 a.m. EST / 14:00 UTC - Saturn in conjunction with the Sun (Saturn not visible, even with a telescope).

* Mon., Jan. 13, 3:20 p.m. EST / 20:20 UTC - Moon at perigee: 227,396 statute miles / 365,958 kilometers.

* Tue., Jan. 14 - Beginning of the New Year, according to the Julian Calendar. (Jan. 14)

* Wed., Jan. 15 (1929) - Anniversary of the Birthday of Martin Luther King, Jr. (Observed - USA: Third Monday in January): Birth of Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.. (Jan. 15)

* Wed., Jan. 15 (2001) - Anniversary of launch of Wikipedia, free-of-charge, on-line encyclopedia. (Jan. 15)

* Jan. 16 to 25, 8:00 to 10:00 p.m. Prevailing Local Time - CITIZEN SCIENCE: Monthly Globe at Night campaign, to raise public awareness of the impact of light pollution by encouraging everyone everywhere to measure local levels of night sky brightness and contribute observations on-line to a world map.

* Fri., Jan. 17 - Kid Inventors’ Day (K.I.D.), on January 17 in honor of the birth of famous inventor Benjamin Franklin, who invented the first swim flippers at the age of 12. (Jan. 17)

* Fri., Jan. 17, 7:58 a.m. EST / 12:58 UTC - Primary Moon Phase: Last Quarter.

* Fri., Jan. 17, 6:03 p.m. EST / 23:03 UTC - Mars 4.7 degrees north of Star Antares.

* Mon., Jan. 20 (1937 to present, on years divisible by four) - U.S. Presidential Inauguration Day. (Jan. 20)

* Mon., Jan. 20 - Martin Luther King, Jr. Day (Observed - USA: Third Monday in January): Birth of Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.: 1929 Jan. 15. (Third Monday in January)

* Mon., Jan. 20, 2:13 p.m. EST / 19:13 UTC - Conjunction: Earth's Moon and Mars. The Moon passes 2.3 degrees north of Mars, above the southeastern horizon. Best view before Local Dawn.

* Tue., Jan. 21 - Squirrel Appreciation Day. (Jan. 21)

* Wed., Jan. 22, 9:42 p.m. EST / Jan. 23, 2:42 UTC - - Conjunction: Earth's Moon and Jupiter. The crescent Moon passes very close to Jupiter (Moon passes 0.4 degree south of Jupiter). This conjunction will be difficult to see as both objects rise shortly before Local Sunrise. Occultation to occur.

* Thur., Jan. 23 - Sun rises for first time in year (after Sun setting for last time of previous year on November 18: total of 67 days of darkness) in the northern-most town in United States of America: Barrow, Alaska (330 miles north of the Arctic Circle). (Jan. 23)

* Fri., Jan. 24 - National Compliment Day. (Jan. 24)

* Fri., Jan. 24, 4:42 p.m. EST / 21:42 UTC - Primary Moon Phase: New Moon.

* Sat., Jan. 25 (1915) - First transcontinental telephone call. (Jan. 25)

* Jan. 26 to Feb. 1 - Celebrate Catholic Schools Week. (End of January / Beginning of February)

* Sun., Jan. 26 - Australia Day, commemorating the first landing in Australia by Captain Arthur Phillip. (Jan. 26)

* Jan. 27 to 31 - Tax Identity Theft Awareness Week. (Last business week of January / first business week of February).

* Mon., Jan. 27 - Holocaust Remembrance Day (UN). (Jan. 27)

* Mon., Jan. 27 (1967) - Anniversary of Apollo 1 fire; three astronauts perished: Gus Grissom, Ed White, Roger Chaffee. (Jan. 27)

* Mon., Jan. 27 (1926) - First public demonstration, in London, of a black-and-white, mechanical television system. (Jan. 27)

* Mon., Jan. 27 - National Bubble-Wrap Appreciation Day, first used by IBM to safely ship computers in 1961. (Last Monday of January)

* Mon., Jan. 27, after Local Sunset - Venus and Neptune very close (~0.1 degree separation) in southwestern sky after sunset. Although Venus is very easy to find with the naked eyes (one-power), a telescope will be necessary to find much dimmer Neptune in the brightness of Venus.

* Tue., Jan. 28 (1986) - Anniversary of STS Space Shuttle Challenger explosion; seven astronauts perished: Francis Scobee, Michael Smith, Elison Onizuka, Judith Resnik, Ronald McNair, Gregory Jarvis, Christa McAuliffe (Teacher-in-Space). (Jan. 28)
Viewed at Pittsburgh's original Buhl Planetarium and Institute of Popular Science (a.k.a. Buhl Science Center).

* Tue., Jan. 28 - Data Privacy Day. (Jan. 28)

* Tue., Jan. 28, 2:29 a.m. EST / 6:29 UTC - Conjunction: Earth's Moon and Venus. Close approach to Venus by the crescent Moon (Moon passes 4.1 degrees south of Venus), above the western horizon, best viewed at Local Dusk.

* Wed., Jan. 29 - Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) Awareness Day. (Jan. 29)

* Wed., Jan. 29 - Puzzle Day. (Jan. 29)

* Wed., Jan. 29, 4:28 p.m. EST / 21:28 UTC - Moon at apogee: 251,897.7 statute miles / 405,390 kilometers.

* Fri., Jan. 31 (1958) - Anniversary of the first successful launch, by the USA, of an artificial satellite: Explorer 1. (Jan. 31)

* Fri., Jan. 31 - Earned Income Tax Credit Awareness Day. (Last Friday in January)

Astronomical Calendar: 2020 February
Monthly Observances This Month

2020: Year of the Nurse and the Midwife 2020

Moon Phases:
Today *** Calendar Month

Planets, Stars, Sky Events:
Today *** This Week
Solar System *** Occultations
Constellations *** Star Chart

View International Space Station (ISS)
Rocket Launches This Month: Link 1 *** Link 2 *** Link 3 *** Link 4

Equinoxes (EQX), Solstices (SOLC), and Cross-Quarter (XQ) Days For This Year.
Chronological Cycles and Eras For This Year.
Dominical Letters: "E" & "D" - Used in a Perpetual Calendar. For This Leap Year.

Astronomical Glossary
of Terms Used

Astronomical Calendar
Archives

Other
Astronomical Calendars: Link 1 * Link 2

10,000-Year Calendar

Rise & Set Times

Current Sky Events & Astro Phenomena

News: Astronomy, Space, Science --

Weekly: SpaceWatchtower Blog

Daily: SpaceWatchtower Twitter Feed

History of Pittsburgh's Original
Buhl Planetarium and Institute of Popular Science

Astronomy Links

Science Links


a.m. = Ante-Meridiem (Morning: Midnight to a moment before Noon)

p.m. = Post-Meridiem (Afternoon & Evening: a moment after Noon to a moment before Midnight of the next day)

EST = Eastern Standard Time *** EDT = Eastern Daylight Saving Time *** UTC = Coordinated Universal Time

SPECIAL NOTES:
(1) All astronomical or sky observations are always weather-permitting.
(2) For calendar entries which describe a relationship between two or more celestial objects, unless otherwise noted all relationships between celestial objects are visual relationships as seen from Earth only.


* Nov. 1 to April 30 - Use of life jackets by every person on a small boat (less than 16 feet in length), during cold-weather months, is mandatory. (Nov. 1 to April 30)

* Jan. 26 to Feb. 1 - Celebrate Catholic Schools Week. (End of January / Beginning of February)

* Jan. 29 to Feb. 2 - Tax Identity Theft Awareness Week. (Last business week of January / first business week of February).

* Sat., Feb. 1 (2003) - Anniversary of STS Space Shuttle Columbia disintegration during re-entry; seven astronauts perished: Rick Husband, William McCoanol, David Brown, Kalpana Chawla, Michael Anderson, Laurel Clark, Ilan Ramon. (Feb. 1)

* Sat., Feb. 1 (1865) - National Freedom Day -Date in 1865 when U.S. President Abraham Lincoln signed a resolution proposing the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution prohibiting slavery. (Feb. 1)

* Sat., Feb. 1 - National Change Your Password Day!. (Feb. 1)

* Sat., Feb. 1 - World Read Aloud Day. (Feb. 1)

* Sat., Feb. 1, 8:42 p.m. EST / Feb. 2, 1:42 UTC - Primary Moon Phase: First Quarter.

* 2020 Feb. 2 - ONCE-IN-A-CENTURY CALENDAR-DATE PALINDROME: 02 / 02 / 2020 (palindrome is a sequence of numbers which reads the same forward as it reads backward). ADDITIONALLY, 2020 February 2 is Groundhog Day, Super Bowl Sunday, and the 33rd day of the year, which is followed by 333 more days! The previous calendar-date palindrome was 1111 November 11 (11 / 11 / 1111). The next two calendar-date palendromes will be 2121 December 12 (12 / 12 / 2121) and 3030 March 3 (03 / 03 / 3030).

* Feb. 2 to 8 - World Orphan Week. (1st full week of February)

* Sun., Feb. 2 - Traditional Astronomical Cross-Quarter Day Imbolc, and also Candlemas, better known as Groundhog Day. (First traditional Astronomical Cross-Quarter Day of year; approximate mid-way point in Winter season: Feb. 1 Eve - Feb. 2).
(Groundhog Day at Gobler's Knob, Punxsutawney PA 15767, home of Punxsutawney Phil: - Sunrise: 7:26 a.m. EST / 12:26 UTC) .
Actual Cross-Quarter Day.

* Sun., Feb. 2, 4:00 a.m. EST / 9:00 UTC - Asteroid 4 Vesta 0.5 degree south of the Moon; occultation: southern Asia, eastern portion of Afghanistan, northern section of the Philippines, China, Japan, eastern portion of Russia, Alaska, western portion of Canada.

* Mon., Feb. 3 (1851) - Anniversary: Jean Leon Foucault first demonstrates, before scientists in the Meridian Room of the Paris Observatory, the Foucault Pendulum, which is a proof that the Earth rotates on its axis. He had invented the device on 1851 January 8.
Near the end of his life, Jean Leon Foucault also developed the Siderostat-type Refractor Telescope. (Feb. 3)

* Mon., Feb. 3, 3:55 a.m. EST / Feb. 4, 8:55 UTC - Actual Astronomical Cross-Quarter Day (First actual Astronomical Cross-Quarter Day of year; mid-way point in Winter season: ~Feb. 4).
Traditional Cross-Quarter Day.

* Tue., Feb. 4 - Transit Equity Day to honor Rosa Parks on her birthday, for her act of resistance by refusing to give up her seat on the bus in Montgomery, Alabama in 1955, which was a catalyst for the civil rights movement. (Feb. 4 - birthday of Rosa Parks)

* Tue., Feb. 4 - World Cancer Day (WCD). (Feb. 4)

* Tue., Feb. 4 - Thank A Mailman Day. (Feb. 4)

* Tue., Feb. 4 - Lichun - Beginning of first Solar term (of 24 Solar terms in one year) of traditional East Asia calendars (begins when the Sun reaches the celestial longitude of 315° and ends when it reaches the longitude of 330°); also known as the start of Spring (Occurs each year around Feb. 4)

* Tue., Feb. 4 - African American Coaches Day about the benefits of working with a personal or business coach. (First Tuesday in February)

* Wed., Feb. 5 - National Weatherperson's Day - Birth of one of America's first weather observers, John Jeffries (picture): 1744 February 5. (Feb. 5)

* Wed., Feb. 5, 6:00 p.m. EST / 23:00 UTC - The Moon 1.4 degrees south of Open Star Cluster M35.

* Thur., Feb. 6, 12:49 a.m. EST / 5:49 UTC - NASA astronaut Christina Koch, European Space Agency astronaut Luca Parmitano and Russian cosmonaut Alexander Skvortsov leave the International Space Station, in a Soyuz MS-13 spacecraft, and touch-down near Dzhezkazgan, Kazakhstan ~ 4:14 a.m. EST / 9:14 UTC.

* Fri., Feb. 7 (1863) - Periodic Table (of Chemical Elements) Day. (Feb. 7)

* Fri., Feb. 7 - National Wear Red Day - Go Red for Women movement to heart disease in women (American Heart Association). (First Friday in Feb.)

* Fri., Feb. 7, ~ 11:15 p.m. EST / Feb. 8, 4:15 UTC - United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket will launch the Solar Orbiter spacecraft for NASA and the European Space Agency from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida

* Sat., Feb. 8 (1910) - Anniversary of founding of the Boy Scouts of America. (Feb. 8)

* Sat., Feb. 8, 6:00 a.m. EST / 11:00 UTC - The Moon 1.0 degree north of the Beehive Open Star Cluster (M44).

* Sun., Feb. 9 - Autism Sunday / International Day of Prayer for Autism and Asperger Syndrome. (Second Sunday of February)

* Sun., Feb. 9, 2:33 a.m. EST / 7:33 UTC - Primary Moon Phase: Full Moon - Snow Moon.

* Mon., Feb. 10 - National Clean Out Your Computer Day. (Second Monday in February)

* Mon., Feb. 10, 3:00 p.m. EST / 20:00 UTC - Moon at perigee: 223,980.1 statute miles / 360,461 kilometers.

* Tue., Feb. 11 - Safer Internet Day. [Second day (Tuesday) of the second (business) week of February]

* Tue., Feb. 11 (1732) - Anniversary of birth of first American President, George Washington, according to Julian Calendar (also known as "Old Style Calendar"), at use at that time; according to Gregorian Calendar, which we use today, George Washington's birthday occurred on Feb. 22. (Feb. 11)
Science & U.S. Presidents
See also: Washington's Birthday Observed / Presidents' Day * Washington's Birthday Actual (Julian Calendar) * Washington's Birthday Actual (Gregorian Calendar) * Lincoln's Birthday.

* Tue., Feb. 11 - International Day for Women and Girls in Science. (Feb. 11)

* Tue., Feb. 11 - National Inventors' Day, anniversary of the birth of the inventor Thomas Alva Edison. (Feb. 11)

* Tue., Feb. 11 - Zodiacal Light visible, with difficulty after evening twilight (visible for up to an hour after dusk) in the western sky of the Northern Hemisphere, for the next two weeks. (February, March)

* Wed., Feb. 12 (1809) - Anniversary of birth of 16th American President, Abraham Lincoln. (Feb. 12)
Science & U.S. Presidents
See also: Washington's Birthday Observed / Presidents' Day * Washington's Birthday Actual (Julian Calendar) * Washington's Birthday Actual (Gregorian Calendar) * Lincoln's Birthday.

* Wed., Feb. 12 (1809) - Anniversary of birth of English naturalist, Charles Darwin; Darwin Day. (Feb. 12)

* Wed., Feb. 12 - Mercury at perihelion.

* Thur., Feb. 13 - World Radio Day (WRD). (Feb. 13)

* Thur., Feb. 13 - Galentine’s Day - Fun holiday for women, created in 2010 by the NBC-TV program, Parks and Recreation. (Feb. 13 - always day before St. Valentine's Day)

* Thur., Feb. 13, 5:00 a.m. EST / 10:00 UTC - Asteroid 3 Juno 0.6 degree south of the Moon; occultation: most of North America (not including northeastern Canada), Central America, Caribbean, northern portion of South America.

* Fri. through Mon., Feb. 14 to 17 - CITIZEN SCIENCE: The Great Backyard Bird Count. (Presidents' Day holiday weekend, starting on Friday)

* Feb. 14 to 23, 8:00 to 10:00 p.m. Prevailing Local Time - CITIZEN SCIENCE: Monthly Globe at Night campaign, to raise public awareness of the impact of light pollution by encouraging everyone everywhere to measure local levels of night sky brightness and contribute observations on-line to a world map.

* Fri., Feb. 14 - St. Valentine's Day. (Feb. 14)

* Fri., Feb. 14 - Library Lovers Day. (Feb. 14)

* Fri., Feb. 14 - International Book Giving Day. (Feb. 14)

* Fri., Feb. 14 - National Have a Heart Day to promote awareness of our food choices so as to get or maintain a healthy heart. (Feb. 14)

* Fri., Feb. 14 - National Organ Donor Day. (Feb. 14)
Also see: Story of the youngest heart-lungs transplant recipient, who received her first transplant operation shortly after visiting Pittsburgh's Buhl Planetarium in November of 1985.

* Sat., Feb. 15 (1564) - Anniversary: Birth of Italian Astronomer Galileo Galilei. (Feb. 15)

* Sat., Feb. 15 (2013) - Chelyabinsk, Russia Meteor, a super-bolide caused by an approximately 20 m (66 ft) near-Earth asteroid, which caused wide-spread damage in Chelyabinsk, Russia. (Feb. 15)

* Sat., Feb. 15 (1820) - Susan B. Anthony Day - Anniversary of the birth of Susan B. Anthony and commemoration of women's suffrage in the United States. (Feb. 15)

* Sat., Feb. 15 - Singles Awareness Day. (Feb. 15)

* Sat., Feb. 15, 5:17 p.m. EST / 22:17 UTC - Primary Moon Phase: Last Quarter.

* Feb. 16 to 22 - National Engineers Week. [Third or fourth week in February (Sunday through Saturday), which includes George Washington's actual birthday of February 22]

* Feb. 16 to 22 - National Brotherhood / Sisterhood Week. (Week which includes Feb. 22, which coincides with George Washington's birthday)

* Mon., Feb. 17 - Washington's Birthday Observed / Presidents' Day. (USA Federal Holiday: Third Monday in Feb.)
Science & U.S. Presidents
See also: Washington's Birthday Observed / Presidents' Day * Washington's Birthday Actual (Julian Calendar) * Washington's Birthday Actual (Gregorian Calendar) * Lincoln's Birthday.
Also see: The Astronomy President.

* Mon., Feb. 17 (1869) - Anniversary: Periodic Table of Chemical Elements. (Feb. 17)

* Mon., Feb. 17 (2015) - Fireball over Pittsburgh seen in several states. (Feb. 17)

* Mon., Feb. 17 - Random Acts Of Kindness Day. (Feb. 17)

* Tue., Feb. 18 (1930) - Anniversary: Date of discovery of Planet Pluto (now designated Dwarf Planet 134340 Pluto) discovered by Clyde Tombaugh working at Lowell Observatory in Flagstaff, Arizona. (Feb. 18)

* Tue., Feb. 18, 8:17 a.m. EST / 13:17 UTC - Mars 0.8 degree south of the Moon; occultation: most of North America (not including Alaska and western Canada), most of Central America, Caribbean, northern portion of South America, southern tip of Greenland, Azores.

* Wed., Feb. 19 (1473) - Anniversary: Birth of famous Polish astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus. (Feb. 19)
A portrait of Nicolaus Copernicus, donated to Pittsburgh's original Buhl Planetarium and Institute of Popular Science by the Polish Arts League of Pittsburgh, hung on the Mezzanine of Buhl Planetarium.
Also see photograph of the inscription of the name "Copernicus," just under the outer planetarium dome of Pittsburgh's original Buhl Planetarium and Institute of Popular Science.

* Wed., Feb. 19 (1968) - Anniversary: National premiere on National Educational Television (NET - predecessor of PBS, the Public Broadcasting Service) of landmark children's television program, Mister Rogers' Neighborhood, which included puppet character King Friday the 13th (originated at WQED-TV channel 13 in Pittsburgh). (Feb. 19)

* Wed., Feb. 19, 3:00 p.m. EST / 20:00 UTC - Jupiter 0.9 degree north of the Moon; occultation: Antarctica, southern portion of South America.

* Thur., Feb. 20 (1491) - Anniversary: "Comet of 1491" which, until 2002, was considered the closest comet to ever approach the Earth. Today, this comet is not considered the closest comet to ever approach the Earth, due to the unreliability of data. (Feb. 20)
More information.

* Thur., Feb. 20, 3:00 a.m. EST / 8:00 UTC - Dwarf Planet Pluto 0.7 degree north of the Moon; occultation: southeast portion of South America, Antarctica, Kerguelen Islands, southwestern tip of Australia.

* Thur., Feb. 20, 9:00 a.m. EST / 14:00 UTC - Saturn 1.7 degrees north of the Moon.

* Thur., Feb. 20 - Introduce a Girl to Engineering Day. (Thursday of National Engineering Week)

* Fri., Feb. 21 - International Mother Language Day. (Feb. 21)

* Sat., Feb. 22 (1732) - Anniversary of birth of first American President, George Washington, according to Gregorian Calendar, which we use today; according to Julian Calendar (also known as "Old Style Calendar") at use at that time, George Washington's birthday occurred on Feb. 11. (Feb. 22)
Science & U.S. Presidents
See also: Washington's Birthday Observed / Presidents' Day * Washington's Birthday Actual (Julian Calendar) * Washington's Birthday Actual (Gregorian Calendar) * Lincoln's Birthday.

* Sat., Feb. 22 - National Brotherhood Day. (Feb. 22 - coincides with George Washington's birthday)

* Feb. 23 to 29 - Montessori Education Week. (Last week of February / first week of March)

* Sun., Feb. 23, 10:32 a.m. EST / 15:32 UTC - Primary Moon Phase: New Moon - Lunation # 1202.

* Feb. 24 to 28 - Fair Use / Fair Dealing Week, commissioned by the Association of Research Libraries. (Last full business week of February)

* Feb. 24 to 29 - America Saves Week. (Last week of Feb. - Same week as Military Saves Week)

* Feb. 24 to 29 - Military Saves Week. (Last week of Feb. - Same week as America Saves Week)

* Mon., Feb. 24 (1914) - Anniversary: Concept of the Projection Planetarium. (Feb. 24)

* Tue., Feb. 25 - Equilux when considering Civil Twilight (Dawn before sunrise and Dusk after sunset) - When considering Civil Twilight, the day when daylight and darkness, both, have the same length of hours and minutes. Occurs twice each year, approximately 23 days before the Vernal Equinox and 23 days after the Autumnal Equinox. (Feb. 25-26, Oct. 15)

* Tue., Feb. 25 - Mardi Gras / Fat Tuesday / Carnival Tuesday / Shrove Tuesday / Pancake Tuesday / Pancake Day. (Day before Ash Wednesday)

* Tue., Feb. 25 - World Spay Day. (Last Tuesday of every February)

* Tue., Feb. 25, 9:00 p.m. EST / Feb. 26, 2:00 UTC - Mercury in inferior conjunction (Mercury not visible, even with a telescope).

* Wed., Feb. 26 -
** Ash Wednesday
** Beginning of Lent. (First Wednesday in Lent, 46 days before Easter Sunday)
Will Christians Agree to Fix the Date of Easter?

* Wed., Feb. 26, 7:00 p.m. EST / 12:00 UTC - Moon at apogee: 252,449.4 statute miles / 406,278 kilometers.

* Thur., Feb. 27 - Digital Learning Day. (4th Thursday in February)

* Thur., Feb. 27 - International Polar Bear Day. (Feb. 27)

* Thur., Feb. 27, 7:00 p.m. EST / 12:00 UTC - Venus 6 degrees north of the Moon.

* Feb. 28 to March 1 - National Girl Scout Cookie Weekend. (Last weekend of February / first weekend of March)

* Fri., Feb. 28, ~4:55 a.m. Prevailing Local Time - Andromeda Galaxy (M31) rises in the northeastern sky.

* Fri., Feb. 28, 7:00 p.m. EST / 12:00 UTC - Uranus 4 degrees north of the Moon.

* Feb. 29 to March 1 (1504 Feb. 29 to March 1) - Anniversary of total lunar eclipse used by Christopher Columbus, to scare the natives of Jamaica into providing food and other provisions for his sailors. (Feb. 29 to March 1)
Also see first recorded lunar eclipse in continental North America.

* Sat., Feb. 29 - Leap Year Day - Extra day added to the Gregorian Calendar once every four years (in calendar years divisible by four). However, calendar years divisble by 100, but not years divisble by 400, do not contain a Leap Year Day; this was part of the revision of the Julian Calendar, instituted by Pope Gregory XIII in October of 1582, for the last year of each century (hence, the year 2000 did have a Leap Year Day). This additional day is to keep the Gregorian Calendar, a type of Solar Calendar, synchronized with the Earth's revolution around the Sun (Feb. 29): Link 1 *** Link 2.

* Sat., Feb. 29 - Rare Disease Day. (Last day of February: Feb. 28 or 29)

Astronomical Calendar: 2020 March
Monthly Observances This Month

"March roars in like a lion and goes out like a lamb."
(Origin: Constellations Leo the Lion & Aries the Ram)

2020: Year of the Nurse and the Midwife 2020

Standard Time Ends / Daylight Saving Time Resumes
Second Sunday in March at 2:00 a.m. Prevailing Local Time

Spring Begins: ~ March 19, 20, 21

Moon Phases:
Today *** Calendar Month

Planets, Stars, Sky Events:
Today *** This Week
Solar System *** Occultations
Constellations *** Star Chart

View International Space Station (ISS)
Rocket Launches This Month: Link 1 *** Link 2 *** Link 3 *** Link 4

Equinoxes (EQX), Solstices (SOLC), and Cross-Quarter (XQ) Days For This Year.
Chronological Cycles and Eras For This Year.
Dominical Letters: "E" & "D" - Used in a Perpetual Calendar. For This Leap Year.

Astronomical Glossary
of Terms Used

Astronomical Calendar
Archives

Other
Astronomical Calendars: Link 1 * Link 2

10,000-Year Calendar

Rise & Set Times

Current Sky Events & Astro Phenomena

News: Astronomy, Space, Science --

Weekly: SpaceWatchtower Blog

Daily: SpaceWatchtower Twitter Feed

History of Pittsburgh's Original
Buhl Planetarium and Institute of Popular Science

Astronomy Links

Science Links


a.m. = Ante-Meridiem (Morning: Midnight to a moment before Noon)

p.m. = Post-Meridiem (Afternoon & Evening: a moment after Noon to a moment before Midnight of the next day)

EST = Eastern Standard Time *** EDT = Eastern Daylight Saving Time *** UTC = Coordinated Universal Time

SPECIAL NOTES:
(1) All astronomical or sky observations are always weather-permitting.
(2) For calendar entries which describe a relationship between two or more celestial objects, unless otherwise noted all relationships between celestial objects are visual relationships as seen from Earth only.


* Nov. 1 to April 30 - Use of life jackets by every person on a small boat (less than 16 feet in length), during cold-weather months, is mandatory. (Nov. 1 to April 30)

* Feb. 28 to March 1 - National Girl Scout Cookie Weekend. (Last weekend of February / first weekend of March)

* March 1 to 7 - National Consumer Protection Week. (First full week of March)

* Sun., March 1 (1504 Feb. 29 to March 1) - Anniversary of total lunar eclipse used by Christopher Columbus, to scare the natives of Jamaica into providing food and other provisions for his sailors. (Feb. 29 to March 1)
Also see first recorded lunar eclipse in continental North America.

* Sun., March 1 - Beginning of Meteorological Spring Season in Northern Hemisphere. (March 1)

* Sun., March 1 - Beginning of Autumn Season in Australia. (March 1)

* Sun., March 1 - St. David's Day. (March 1)

* Sun., March 1 - World Compliment Day. (March 1)

* Sun., March 1, 1:00 a.m. EST / 6:00 UTC - Asteroid 4 Vesta 0.1 degree north of the Moon; occultation: Hawaii, western and northern parts of Australia, eastern portion of Indonesia, northwestern section of Melanesia, Micronesia.

* Mon., March 2 - Read Across America sponsored by the National Education Association to motivate children to read, in addition to helping them master basic skills. (Annual--on or near March 2, birthday of Dr. Seuss)

* Mon., March 2, 2:57 p.m. EST / 19:57 UTC - Primary Moon Phase: First Quarter.

* Mon., March 2, 3:30 to 6:30 p.m. EST / 20:30 to 23:30 UTC - Launch window for launch of first orbital mission by California-based startup company Astra Space, as part of the DARPA Launch Challenge, as a way to develop low-cost launch systems by smaller rocket launch companies.

* Tue, March 3 - World Wildlife Day. (March 3)

* March 4 to 8 - Open Education Week. (First week of March)

* March 4 to 8 - National School Breakfast Week. (First school week of March)

* Wed., March 4 (1681) - Pennsylvania Charter Day - William Penn received charter, for what became the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, from Great Britain's King Charles II on 1681 March 4. (March 4)

* Wed., March 4 (1793 until 1933, on years divisible by four) - U.S. Presidential Inauguration Day. (March 4)

* Wed., March 4 - National Grammar Day. (March 4)

* Wed., March 4 - World Maths Day. (First Wednesday in March)

* Wed., March 4, 4:00 a.m. EST / 9:00 UTC - Moon 1.2 degrees south of Open Star Cluster M35.

* Thur., March 5 (1868) - Anniversary: Railway Air Brake patented by George Westinghouse in Pittsburgh. (March 5)

* Fri., March 6 (1869) - Professor Dimitri Ivanovich Mendeleev's first Periodic Table of the Elements was presented to, and published by, the Russian Chemical Society. (March 6)

* Fri., March 6 - Employee Appreciation Day. (First Friday of March)

* Fri., March 6, 5:00 p.m. EST / 22:00 UTC - Moon 1.1 degrees north of the Beehive Open Star Cluster (M44).

* March 8 to 14 - Sleep Awareness Week®. (Coincides, each year, with conversion to Daylight Saving Time)

* March 8 to 14 - Teen Tech Week. (March: Second Week)

* March 8 to 14 - Wildfire Prevention Week. [Pennsylvania: Spring (Second week of March), Autumn]

* Sun., March 8 - Day of Planetaria. (Sunday in mid-March)

* Sun, March 8 - International Women's Day. (March 8)

* Sun., March 8, 2:00 a.m. Prevailing Local Time (Standard Time) - DAYLIGHT SAVING TIME BEGINS - Beginning in 2007, EARLY DUE TO NEW FEDERAL LAW. Civil Time changes from 2:00 a.m. Standard Time to 3:00 a.m. Daylight Saving Time (Second Sunday in March, 2:00 a.m. Prevailing Local Time).
Some States to Abandon Daylight Saving Time ?
Science of Daylight Saving Time.

* Sun, March 8, 8:00 a.m. EDT / 12:00 UTC - Neptune in conjunction with the Sun (Neptune not visible, even with a telescope).

* March 9, Sunset to March 10, Sunset (Sunset in Pittsburgh - March 9: 7:21 p.m. EDT / 23:21 UTC; March 10: 7:22 p.m. EDT / 23:22 UTC) - Purim - Jewish holiday that commemorates the saving of the Jewish people from Haman, in the ancient Persian Empire, who was planning to kill all the Jews.

* March 9 to 15 - Brain Awareness Week. (Second full week of March: Monday through Sunday)

* Mon., March 9 - Napping Day. (Monday after the annual beginning of Daylight Saving Time)

* Mon., March 9, 11:00 a.m. EDT / 15:00 UTC - Venus 2 degrees north of Uranus.

* Mon., March 9, 1:48 p.m. EDT / 17:48 UTC - Primary Moon Phase: Full Moon - Worm Moon.
Largest visible, and closest to Earth, Full Moon of 2020.

* March 10 to April 12, September 24 through November 5 - Tsunami Preparedness Weeks. (mid-March through April, mid-September through early November)

* Tue., March 10 (1982) - 1982 date of first alignment of our Solar System's nine planets (including Pluto, which at that time was still considered a planet) since A.D. 1128. A 1974 book, The Jupiter Effect, had erroneously predicted several catastrophes to occur on this date in 1982, including a major earthquake on the San Andreas Fault in California. (March 10)

* Tue., March 10 (1876) - Anniversary: First successful telephone transmission of clear speech - when Alexander Graham Bell transmitted, "Mr. Watson, come here, I want to see you." Three days earlier, on March 7, Alexander Graham Bell received a U.S. patent for the telephone. (March 10)

* Tue., March 10, 2:00 a.m. EDT / 6:00 UTC - Moon at perigee: 221,905 statute miles / 357,122 kilometers.
Large Tides predicted along ocean coast-lines, due to close proximity to Full Moon Primary Phase.

* Wed., March 11 - Zodiacal Light visible, with difficulty, after evening twilight in the western sky of Earth's Northern Hemisphere, for the next two weeks. (February, March)

* Thur., March 12 - World Day Against Cyber Censorship. (March 12)

* Thur., March 12 (1989) - Anniversary of the original proposal founding the World Wide Web on the Internet. (March 12)

* Thur., March 12 (1912) - Anniversary of the founding of the Girl Scouts of the United States of America. (March 12)

* Fri., March 13 - "Friday the 13th" superstition; debunking this superstition, purpose of character King Friday the 13th on popular PBS children's television series, Mister Rogers' Neighborhood (originated at WQED-TV channel 13 in Pittsburgh). (Friday the 13th)

* Fri., March 13 (1781) - Anniversary of the Planet Uranus discovery announced by Sir Frederick William Herschel. (March 13)

* Fri., March 13 (1938), 8:00 a.m. Prevailing Time - Anniversary of beginning of the radio news program CBS World News Roundup, the longest-running, network news broadcast in America. (March 13)

* March 14 to 24, 8:00 to 10:00 p.m. Prevailing Local Time - CITIZEN SCIENCE: Monthly Globe at Night campaign, to raise public awareness of the impact of light pollution by encouraging everyone everywhere to measure local levels of night sky brightness and contribute observations on-line to a world map.

* Sat., March 14 - Pi Day, a holiday commemorating the mathematical constant π (pi). (March 14: 3.14)

* March 15 to 21 - Solar Week. (Mid-to-Late March, Mid-to-Late October)

* Sun., March 15 - Ides of March. (March 15)
Also see: Ides of March article on StarDate.org.

* Sun., March 15 - Buzzards return to Hinckley, Ohio (Cleveland suburb). (March 15)

* Sat., March 15 (1892) - First patent granted for the invention of the escalator, which resulted in production of the first escalator installed on the Old Iron Pier at Coney Island in New York City in 1896. (March 15)

* March 16 to 22 - Fix-a-Leak Week. (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency - third week of March: Monday through Sunday)

* Mon., March 16 - Equilux - The actual day with equal hours and minutes of the Sun above the horizon, and equal hours and minutes of the Sun below the horizon. Occurs twice each year, approximately 3-to-4 days before the Vernal Equinox and 3-to-4 days after the Autumnal Equinox. (March 16, September 25)

* Mon., March 16 - Anniversary: American engineer, professor, physicist, and inventor Robert H. Goddard launched the first liquid-fueled (gasoline and liquid oxygen) rocket. (March 16)

* Mon., March 16 - Freedom of Information Day, the birthday of James Madison, who is widely regarded as the Father of the Constitution and as the foremost advocate for openness in government. (March 16)

* Mon., March 16, 5:34 a.m. EDT / 9:34 UTC - Primary Moon Phase: Last Quarter.

* Tue., March 17 - St. Patrick's Day. (March 17)

* Tue., March 17, 1:43 p.m. EDT / 17:43 UTC - Double-shadow (shadows of 2 Galilean Moons) transit on Jupiter; visible, with difficulty, through telescope after sunset or before sunrise.

* Wed., March 18 - Transit Driver Appreciation Day. (March 18)

* Wed., March 18 - Awkward Moments Day. (March 18)

* Wed., March 18, 4:00 a.m. EDT / 8:00 UTC - Mars 0.7 degree north of the Moon; occultation: southern portion of South America, South Georgia Island, Anarctica, Kerguelen Islands.

* Wed., March 18, 6:00 a.m. EDT / 10:00 UTC - Jupiter 1.5 degrees north of the Moon.

* Wed., March 18, 11:00 a.m. EDT / 15:00 UTC - Dwarf Planet Pluto 0.9 degree north of the Moon; occultation: most of Antarctica.

* Wed., March 18, 8:00 p.m. EDT / March 19, 0:00 UTC - Saturn 2 degrees north of the Moon.

* March 19 to 25 - Pennsylvania Medicine Cabinet Clean-up Week. (Week Beginning with the Vernal Equinox)

* Thur., March 19 (1918) - Anniversary: Standard Time Act authorized by the U.S. Congress, which legally established time zones in the United States. The law also established Daylight Saving Time (DST) to conserve energy during World War I, after being promoted by Pittsburgh business and civic leader Robert Garland. (March 19)
Previously, five North American time zones had been established by the American and Canadian railroads at precisely 12:00 Noon on 1883 November 18, upon a time signal sent over the telegraph from the Allegheny Observatory in Pittsburgh.

* Thur., March 19 - St. Joseph's Day - Swallows return to Mission San Juan Capistrano, California. (March 19)

* Thur., March 19 - World Monopoly Day. (March 19)

* Thur., March 19, 11:50 p.m. EDT / March 20, 3:50 UTC - Vernal Equinox - Spring Season begins in Northern Hemisphere of Earth. (~March 20)
Beginning of New Year (Solar Calendar) in Afghanistan and Iran / Persia (Nowruz), including being a holy day for the Zoroastrian Religion, and Bahá'í Naw-Rúz, one of nine holy days of the Bahá'í Faith. (~ March 19, 20, 21)

* March 20 to April 12 - Annual National Cherry Blossom Festival, Washington DC. (~ Vernal Equinox to mid-April)

* Fri., March 20 - Sun - Earth Day. (NASA: Day of, or near, the Vernal Equinox, the first day of Spring)

* Fri., March 20 - Hypatia Day / Women in Science Day. (March 20)

* Fri., March 20 - Venus at perihelion.

* Fri., March 20, 2:00 a.m. EDT / 6:00 UTC - Mars 0.7 degree south of Jupiter.

* Fri., March 20, 2:21 a.m. EDT / 6:21 UTC - Close Conjunction: Moon approaches Jupiter.

* Sat., March 21 - Galactic Tick Day - Celebrates our Solar System's travel around the Milky Way Galaxy; it takes 230 million years for our Solar System to make one revolution around the Milky Way. The Galactic Tick Day occurs once every 1.7361 years, marking each 1 centi-arc-second of travel in this trek.

* Sat., March 21 - Rosie The Riveter Day, commemorating the World War II poster, created by Pittsburgh's Westinghouse Company, which promoted women doing their part in the war effort. (March 21)

* Sat., March 21 - World Poetry Day. (March 21)

* Sat., March 21 - Kick Butts Day to prevent youth use of tobacco products. (March 21).

* Sat., March 21 (1617) - Anniversary of the Funeral of Native American Pocahontas (a.k.a. Rebecca Rolfe) at age ~ 21. (March 21)

* Sat., March 21, 2:00 p.m. EDT / 18:00 UTC - Mercury 4 degrees north of the Moon.

* Sun., March 22 - World Water Day. (March 22)

* March 23 to 27 - Flood Safety Awareness Week. (Pennsylvania: March).

* Mon., March 23 (1989) - National Near-Miss Day - Apollo Asteroid 1989FC, with a diameter of 300 meters, comes within 690,000 kilometers of the Earth in 1989. (March 23)

* Tue., March 24 - Diabetes Alert Day. (Fourth Tuesday of March)

* Tue., March 24, 5:28 a.m. EDT / 9:28 UTC - Primary Moon Phase: New Moon - Lunation # 1203.

* Tue., March 24, 11:00 a.m. EDT / 15:00 UTC - Moon at apogee: 252,706 statute miles / 406,692 kilometers.

* Tue., March 24, 2:37 p.m. EDT / 19:37 UTC - Double-shadow (shadows of 2 Galilean Moons) transit on Jupiter; visible, with difficulty, through telescope after sunset or before sunrise.

* Wed., March 25 - Feast of the Annunciation observed nine full months before Christmas Day. The Feast of the Annunciation on March 25 (also the Vernal Equinox in the "original" Julian Calendar adopted by the second King of Rome, Numa Pompilius, in the 7th century B.C.) had been considered the beginning of the New Year, until the Gregorian Calendar reform, when Pope Gregory XIII chose the Feast of the Circumcision of Christ (Jan. 1) as the beginning of the New Year in the Roman Catholic Church's Liturgical Year. (March 25)

* Wed., March 25 - Lady Day in England, the first of the four traditional English quarter days, was New Year's Day up to 1752 when, following the move from the Julian Calendar to the Gregorian Calendar, January 1 became the start of the year. Lady Day (for the Virgin Mary) is the traditional name of the Feast of the Annunciation of the Blessed Virgin (March 25) in some English-speaking countries. (March 25)

* Wed., March 25 - National Medal of Honor Day. (March 25)

* Thur., March 26 - Make Up Your Own Holiday Day. (March 26)

* Thur., March 26, 5:00 p.m. EDT / 21:00 UTC - Uranus 4 degrees north of the Moon.

* Fri., March 27 - Mercury at aphelion

* Sat., March 28, 8:30 to 9:30 p.m. Prevailing Local Time - Earth Hour annual environmental observance. (Saturday Late in March, 8:30 to 9:30 p.m. Prevailing Local Time)

* Sat., March 28, 6:37 a.m. EDT / 10:37 UTC - Venus 7 degrees north of the Moon.

* March 29 to April 4 - National Week of the Ocean. (End of March, First Week of April)

* Sun., March 29 (1848) - Anniversary: Ice jam stops flow of Niagara Falls for about 30 hours. (March 29)

* Sun., March 29, 3:00 a.m. EDT / 7:00 UTC - Asteroid 4 Vesta 0.2 degree north of the Moon; occultation: southern Indian Ocean, Indonesia, portions of Southeast Asia, Philippines, Micronesia, northern section of Polynesia (NOT including Hawaii.

* March 30 to April 5 - National Drug & Alcohol Facts Week. (End of March / Beginning of April; Previously 4th week of January)

* Mon., March 30 - Pennsylvania Female Veterans' Day. (March 30)

* Mon., March 30 - National Doctors' Day. (March 30)

* Mon., March 30 - World Bi-Polar Day, International Society for Bi-Polar Disorders, Pittsburgh. (March 30)

* Tue., March 31 - World Back-Up Day. (March 31)

* Tue., March 31 - Last day of Calendar Year First Quarter. (March 31)

* Tue., March 31 - National Crayon Day. (March 31)

* Tue., March 31 (1851) - Anniversary: Jean Leon Foucault first demonstrates, to the general public, in the Pantheon in Paris, the Foucault Pendulum, which is a proof that the Earth rotates on its axis. He had invented the device on 1851 January 8 and first demonstrated it to scientists on 1851 February 3.
Near the end of his life, Jean Leon Foucault also developed the Siderostat-type Refractor Telescope. (March 31)

* Tue., March 31 (1918) - Anniversary: Daylight Saving Time (DST) established in the United States by the Standard Time Act, to conserve energy during World War I, after being promoted by Pittsburgh business and civic leader Robert Garland. However, DST was not popular, and the U.S. Congress repealed the law after the War. (March 31)

* Tue., March 31 (1949) - Anniversary: RCA Victor releases first 45-RPM (revolutions-per-minute) phonograph record format. (March 31)

* Tue., March 31, 6:56 a.m. EDT / 10:56 UTC - Close Planetary Conjunction: Saturn <1 degree north of Mars.

* Tue., March 31, 7:00 a.m. EDT / 11:00 UTC - Moon 0.9 degree south of Saturn.

* Tue., March 31, 12:00 Noon EDT / 16:00 UTC - Moon 0.9 degree south of Open Star Cluster M35.

* Tue., March 31, 6:49 p.m. EDT / 22:49 UTC - Double-shadow (shadows of 2 Galilean Moons) transit on Jupiter; visible, with difficulty, through telescope after sunset or before sunrise.

Astronomical Calendar: 2020 April
Monthly Observances This Month

" April showers bring May flowers !"

2020: Year of the Nurse and the Midwife 2020

Meteor Shower -
Lyrid: April 22

Moon Phases:
Today *** Calendar Month

Planets, Stars, Sky Events:
Today *** This Week
Solar System *** Occultations
Constellations *** Star Chart

View International Space Station (ISS)
Rocket Launches This Month: Link 1 *** Link 2 *** Link 3 *** Link 4

Equinoxes (EQX), Solstices (SOLC), and Cross-Quarter (XQ) Days For This Year.
Chronological Cycles and Eras For This Year.
Dominical Letters: "E" & "D" - Used in a Perpetual Calendar. For This Leap Year.

Astronomical Glossary
of Terms Used

Astronomical Calendar
Archives

Other
Astronomical Calendars: Link 1 * Link 2

10,000-Year Calendar

Rise & Set Times

Current Sky Events & Astro Phenomena

News: Astronomy, Space, Science --

Weekly: SpaceWatchtower Blog

Daily: SpaceWatchtower Twitter Feed

History of Pittsburgh's Original
Buhl Planetarium and Institute of Popular Science

Astronomy Links

Science Links


a.m. = Ante-Meridiem (Morning: Midnight to a moment before Noon)

p.m. = Post-Meridiem (Afternoon & Evening: a moment after Noon to a moment before Midnight of the next day)

EST = Eastern Standard Time *** EDT = Eastern Daylight Saving Time *** UTC = Coordinated Universal Time

SPECIAL NOTES:
(1) All astronomical or sky observations are always weather-permitting.
(2) For calendar entries which describe a relationship between two or more celestial objects, unless otherwise noted all relationships between celestial objects are visual relationships as seen from Earth only.


* Nov. 1 to April 30 - Use of life jackets by every person on a small boat (less than 16 feet in length), during cold-weather months, is mandatory. (Nov. 1 to April 30)

* March 10 to April 12, September 24 through November 5 - Tsunami Preparedness Weeks. (mid-March through April, mid-September through early November)

* March 20 to April 12 - Annual National Cherry Blossom Festival, Washington DC. (~ Vernal Equinox to mid-April)

* March 29 to April 4 - National Week of the Ocean. (End of March, First Week of April)

* March 30 to April 5 - National Drug & Alcohol Facts Week. (End of March / Beginning of April; Previously 4th week of January)

* April 1 to 30 - National Kite Month. (April; plus in some years: some days in March and May)

* Wed., April 1 - U.S. Census Day - As required by the U.S. Constitution, the day once every ten years when a census is taken of all people living in the United States of America.

* Wed., April 1 - First day of calendar year Second Quarter. (April 1)

* Wed., April 1 - April Fools' Day - The end of a week-long (March 25 to April 1) New Year's festival in France during the Middle Ages, until January 1 was declared New Year's Day in 1564. After 1564, people in France who celebrated New Year's on April 1 were considered "April Fools." (April 1)

* Wed., April 1 (1960) - Anniversary of launch of first successful weather satellite, TIROS-1. (April 1)
Also see: Space Race To Create Quantum Satellite.

* Wed., April 1 - Global Day of the Engineer. (Early April: First Wednesday of April)

* Wed., April 1 - National Walking Day / Move More in April. (First Wednesday of April)

* Wed., April 1 (1954) - Anniversary of first broadcast of educational television station WQED-TV 13 in Pittsburgh, the nation's first community-supported television station. (April 1)

* Wed., April 1, 6:21 a.m. EDT / 10:21 UTC - Primary Moon Phase: First Quarter.

* Thur., April 2 (1968) - Anniversary: World Premiere of the very influential, science-fiction motion picture, 2001: A Space Odyssey, which was presented in many theaters, including Pittsburgh's Warner Theater, in "Cinerama," an early wide-screen format that preceded the Omnimax format. (April 2)

* Thur., April 2 - Light It Up Blue, in North America, is dedicated to raising awareness of autism (April 2) / World Autism Awareness Day. (April 2)

* Thur., April 2 - Reconciliation Day. (April 2)

* Thur., April 2, 4:00 p.m. EDT / 20:00 UTC - Asteroid 3 Juno at opposition (Juno visible with a telescope, approx. local sunset to local sunrise).

* Fri., April 3 (1513) - Anniversary of the Discovery of Florida by Ponce de Leon. (April 3)

* Fri., April 3, 3:00 a.m. EDT / 7:00 UTC - Moon 1.3 degrees north of Beehive Open Star Cluster (M44).

* Fri., April 3, 11:00 a.m. EDT / 15:00 UTC - Mercury 1.4 degrees south of Neptune.

* Fri., April 3, 4:00 p.m. EDT / 20:00 UTC - Venus 0.3 degree south of the Pleiades Open Star Cluster.

* April 4 to 11 - Money Smart Week®. (Last week of April)

* April 4 to 12 - National Robotics Week. (Early to mid-April)

* Sat., April 4 (1968) - Anniversary: Assassination of American Baptist Minister and civil rights activist Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. (April 4)
Dr. King's writing on how small the Earth is, compared to the great expanse of the Universe.

* Sat., April 4 - Land-Mine Awareness Day. (April 4)

* Sat., April 4 - Park Day - Annual hands-on preservation event to help Civil War — and now Revolutionary War — battlefields and historic sites take on maintenance projects large and small. (First Saturday of April)

* April 5 to 13 - Holy Week. (Week of Palm Sunday through Holy Saturday; Traditionally, also including Easter Sunday, and possibly including Easter Monday)
Will Christians Agree to Fix the Date of Easter?

* Sun., April 5 - Palm Sunday. (Sunday before Easter Sunday)
Will Christians Agree to Fix the Date of Easter?

* Sun., April 5, 2:00 a.m. Prevailing Local Time (Daylight Saving Time) - DAYLIGHT SAVING TIME CONTINUES - Change in Federal law, thus that change from Standard Time to Daylight Saving Time occured the second Sunday in March: 2:00 a.m. Standard Time then became 3:00 a.m. Daylight Saving Time on the second Sunday in March. (Previously, first Sunday of April)
Some States to Abandon Daylight Saving Time ?
Science of Daylight Saving Time.

* April 6 to 10 - National Retirement Planning Week®. (Early to mid-April)

* April 6 to 12 - National Public Health Week. (First week of April)

* Mon., April 6 (2019) - Anniversary: GPS Week Number Roll-Over Event on Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) derived from GPS devices. The potential problem revolves around the way that GPS handles the week element of the data that forms part of the navigation signal; specifically the CNAV and MNAV message types. The week number is encoded into the data stream by a 10-bit field. A binary 10-bit word can represent a maximum of 1,024 weeks, which is approximately 19.7 years. Each 19.7 year period is known in GPS terms as an “epoch”. At the end of each epoch the receiver resets the week number to zero and starts counting again – a new epoch begins. The first epoch started when GPS was launched in January 1980; hence the first epoch of GPS time came to an end on 21st August 1999. As we approach the end of the second epoch, which will fall on 6th April 2019, we may well see problems caused by the rollover. Some GPS receivers, or other systems that utilise the date and time function, may not be able to cope.

* Mon., April 6 (1965) - Anniversary: launch of Early Bird satellite (Intelsat I), first commercial communications satellite placed in a geo-stationary orbit above the Earth. (April 6)

* Mon., April 6 (1917) - Anniversary: United States entry into World War I. (April 6)

* Mon., April 6 - Tartan Day - Celebration of Scottish heritage. (April 6)

* Tue., April 7 - National Alcohol Screening Day (Early April: April 7)

* Tue., April 7 - No Housework Day. (April 7)

* Tue., April 7, 2:00 p.m. EDT / 18:00 UTC - Moon at perigee: 221,771.7 statute miles / 356,907 kilometers.
Large Tides predicted along ocean coast-lines, due to close proximity to Full Moon Primary Phase.

* Tue., April 7, 10:35 p.m. EDT / April 8, 2:35 UTC - Primary Moon Phase: Full Moon. (Pink Moon)

* Wed., April 8 (1920) - Centennial Anniversary: Death of Astronomer, Educator, and Maker of Telescopes and Precise Scientific Instruments, Dr. John A. Brashear. (April 8)

* Wed., April 8 (1960) - 60th Anniversary: Project Ozma -The first major project in the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI), begun by National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) researcher Frank Drake pointing an 85-foot / 26-meter radio telescope dish at the NRAO facility at Green Bank, West Virginia toward Tau Ceti, a star similar to our Sun just 12 light-years away. (April 8)

* Wed., April 8 - Holy Wednesday. (Wednesday before Easter Sunday)
Will Christians Agree to Fix the Date of Easter?

* April 8, local sunset to April 16, local sunset (Sunset in Pittsburgh - April 8: 7:53 p.m. EDT / 23:53 UTC; April 16: 8:01 p.m. EDT / April 17, 0:01 UTC) - Jewish festival of Passover.

* Thur., April 9 - Maundy Thursday / Holy Thursday. (Thursday before Easter Sunday)
Will Christians Agree to Fix the Date of Easter?

* Thur., April 9 (1865) - American Civil War ended with the surrender by Confederate General Robert E. Lee. (April 9)
Also see the Civil War Museum of the Andrew Carnegie Free Library and Music Hall in Carnegie, Pennsylvania.

* Thur., April 9, 4:05 a.m. EDT / 8:05 UTC - Russia Soyuz rocket launch with new International Space Station (ISS) Expedition 62 / 63 crewmembers: NASA astronaut Chris Cassidy and two Russian cosmonauts, Anatoli Ivanishin and Ivan Vagner. Docking with ISS scheduled for 10:16 a.m. EDT / 14:16 UTC.

* Fri., April 10 - Good Friday. (Friday before Easter Sunday)
Will Christians Agree to Fix the Date of Easter?

* Fri., April 10 (1845) - 175th Anniversary: The Great Pittsburgh Fire - While the Great Chicago Fire of 1871 is better known, this link is to a painting (1846) of the Great Pittsburgh Fire on 1845 April 10, by witness William Coventry Wall. Started on a very windy day by a woman who started an outdoor fire to heat wash water, which she had left unattended, the Great Pittsburgh Fire consumed one-third of this city of, then, more than 20,000 population (which already had four daily newspapers), representing around two-thirds of the wealth of the city (between $6 million and $12 million damage). While the fire destroyed 1,200 buildings and displaced 12,000 people, only two deaths were reported.

* Fri., April 10 (1996) - World record fastest wind gust on the Earth's surface (not related to a tornado) recorded by automated, unstaffed weather instrument station on Australia's Barrow Island during Tropical Cyclone Olivia: 253 miles per hour. (April 10)
Also see: Western and Northern Hemispheres' record fastest wind gust on the Earth's surface.

* Fri., April 10 - Siblings Day. (April 10)

* April 11 to 17 - The Week of the Young Child™. (Mid-April)

* Sat., April 11 - Holy Saturday. (Saturday before Easter Sunday)
Will Christians Agree to Fix the Date of Easter?

* Sat., April 11 - Be My Neighbor Day Volunteer Day in Pittsburgh. (2nd Saturday in April)

* Sat., April 11 - National Pet Day. (April 11)

* April 12 to 18 - U.S. CFTC’s SmartCheck Week - To Emphasize Continual Background Checks of Financial Professionals. (Second week of April)

* April 12 to 18 - Pan American Week. (Week of April 14, Pan American Day)

* April 12 to 18 - National Minority Cancer Awareness Week. (Third week of April)

* April 12 to 18 - National Dog-Bite Prevention Week. (Second full week of April)

* April 12 to 19 - Orthodox Holy Week. (Week of Orthodox Palm Sunday through Orthodox Holy Saturday; Traditionally, also including Orthodox Easter Sunday)
Will Christians Agree to Fix the Date of Easter?

* Sun., April 12 - Orthodox Palm Sunday. (Sunday before Orthodox Easter Sunday)
Will Christians Agree to Fix the Date of Easter?

* Sun., April 12 (1961) - International Day of Human Space Flight - Anniversary of when Russia launched the first human into space and orbit of the Earth, Yuri Gagarin. (April 12)

* Sun., April 12 (1981) - First launch of an American Space Shuttle (STS), Columbia. (April 12)

* Sun., April 12 (1934) - World record fastest wind gust on the Earth's surface (not related to a tornado), until 1996 April 10, recorded at Mount Washington Weather Observatory, New Hampshire: 231 miles per hour. This is still the fastest wind gust on the Earth's surface (not related to a tornado) recorded in the Western Hemisphere and in the Northern Hemisphere, and the fastest wind gust on the Earth's surface (not related to a tornado) observed by humans. (April 12)
Also see: World record fastest wind gust on the Earth's surface.

* Sun., April 12 (1955) - Announcement of successful polio vaccine, developed by University of Pittsburgh virology researcher Dr. Jonas Salk. (April 12)

* Sun., April 12 (1861) - The American Civil War began. (April 12)
Also see the Civil War Museum of the Andrew Carnegie Free Library and Music Hall in Carnegie, Pennsylvania.

* Sun., April 12 - Drop Everything and Read Day in honor of the birthday of children's author Beverly Cleary. (April 12)

* Sun., April 12 (Sunrise in Pittsburgh: 6:46 a.m. EDT / 10:46 UTC) - Easter Sunday. [46 days after Ash Wednesday; the first Sunday after the full moon (the Paschal Full Moon) following the March equinox (ecclesiastically, the equinox is reckoned to be on March 21, even though the equinox occurs, astronomically speaking, on March 20 in most years)]
Will Christians Agree to Fix the Date of Easter?

* Mon., April 13 - Citizen Science Day. (April 13)

* Mon., April 13 - Scrabble Day. (April 13)

* Mon., April 13 - FND International Awareness Day - Regarding Functional neurological symptom disorder (FNsD). (April 13)

* Mon., April 13 (1970), 10:07:53 p.m. EST / April 14, 3:07:53 UTC
(SPECIAL NOTE: In 1970, Daylight Saving Time did not begin until April 26, the last Sunday in April.) -
50th Anniversary: Apollo 13 Accident.
Apollo 13 aborted mission to land on the Moon after an oxygen tank explosion severely crippled the spacecraft. After a 1970 April 11 launch, the three astronauts, James A. Lovell, John A. "Jack" Swigert, and Fred W. Haise, returned safely to Earth on 1970 April 17. Due to the plan to return Apollo 13 to Earth, after going around the Moon, the Apollo 13 astronauts flew farther from Earth than any other humans, to-date. (April 13)

* April 14 to 15 (1865) - Assassination of U.S. President Abraham Lincoln. (April 14 to 15)
Also see the Civil War Museum of the Andrew Carnegie Free Library and Music Hall in Carnegie, Pennsylvania.

* April 14 to 23, 8:00 to 10:00 p.m. Prevailing Local Time - CITIZEN SCIENCE - Annual Globe at Night campaign, to raise public awareness of the impact of light pollution by encouraging everyone everywhere to measure local levels of night sky brightness and contribute observations on-line to a world map.

* Tue., April 14 - Pan American Day. (April 14)

* Tue., April 14 (1970), 7:21 p.m. EST / April 15, 0:21 UTC
(SPECIAL NOTE: In 1970, Daylight Saving Time did not begin until April 26, the last Sunday in April.) -
Due to the Moon being nearly at apogee (farthest point in lunar orbit from the Earth, for month of 1970 April), the Apollo 13 astronauts became the first humans to travel farther from the Earth than any other humans, which is still true to-date; distance from Earth: 248,655 mile / 400,171 kilometers. This record was necessary, due to the abort of the lunar landing mission of Apollo 13. (April 14)

* Tue., April 14 (1912), 11:40 p.m. (Ship Time) Anniversary of the sinking of the RMS Titanic on the ship's maiden voyage. (April 14)
Also see: Titanic Sunk by the Moon?

* Tue., April 14, 6:00 p.m. EDT / 22:00 UTC - Dwarf Planet Pluto 1.2 degrees north of the Moon; occultation: a portion of the Antarctic Penninsula.

* Tue., April 14, 6:56 p.m. EDT / 22:56 UTC - Primary Moon Phase: Last Quarter.

* Tue., April 14, 7:00 p.m. EDT / 23:00 UTC - Jupiter 2 degrees north of the Moon.

* Mid-April - Big Night for Spring Peepers - First night (or first several nights), after the ground has thawed, with temperatures ~ +40 to +50 degrees Fahrenheit (F), and it rains, when there is a massive migration of frogs and salamanders in New Hampshire and other New England states. (Mid-April)

* Wed., April 15 - Orthodox Holy Wednesday. (Wednesday before Orthodox Easter Sunday)
Will Christians Agree to Fix the Date of Easter?

* Wed., April 15 - SPECIAL NOTE: DEADLINE FOR FEDERAL TAX RETURNS EXTENDED TO WEDNESDAY, 2020 JULY 15, DUE TO COVID-19 EMERGENCY - Tax Day (USA) - Individual Federal tax returns due or postmarked by end of day. (April 15, unless delayed by a holiday)

* Wed., April 15, 12:00 Noon LOCAL SUN TIME - In the middle of April of each year, Sundial Time and Local Clock Time are in general agreement, for locales which lie on a Time-Zone Meridian (such as Philadelphia, which lies on the Eastern Time Zone Meridian - or Greenwich, England, which lies on the Greenwich Time Zone Meridian or Prime Meridian). (~ April 15)

* Wed., April 15, 5:00 a.m. EDT / 9:00 UTC - Saturn 2 degrees north of the Moon.

* April 16 to 22 - Earth Week. (Week leading to and including Earth Day, April 22: April 16 to 22)

* Thur., April 16 - Orthodox Maundy Thursday / Holy Thursday. (Thursday before Orthodox Easter Sunday)
Will Christians Agree to Fix the Date of Easter?

* Thur., April 16 - National Healthcare Decisions Day. (April 16)

* Thur., April 16 - National Stress Awareness Day. (April 16)

* Thur., April 16 - World Voice Day. (April 16)

* Thur., April 16, 1:00 a.m. EDT / 5:00 UTC - Mars 2 degrees north of the Moon.

* Thur., April 16, 9:53 p.m. EDT / April 17, 1:53 UTC - International Space Station (ISS) Expedition 62 Commander, Russian Cosmonaut Oleg Skripochka, hands-over command of ISS to NASA Astronaut Chris Cassidy of Expedition 63. Then, the Soyuz MS-15 spacecraft returns to Earth with Cosmonaut Oleg Skripochka and NASA astronauts Andrew Morgan and Jessica Meir. Scheduled landing near Dzhezkazgan, Kazakhstan: April 17, 1:17 a.m. EDT / 5:17 UTC.

* Fri., April 17 - Orthodox Good Friday. (Friday before Orthodox Easter Sunday)
Will Christians Agree to Fix the Date of Easter?

* Fri., April 17 - World Hemophilia Day. (April 17)

* Fri., April 17 - Blah, Blah, Blah Day. (April 17)

* April 18 to 26 - National Park Week. (Third or fourth week of April, including both weekends)

* April 18, Nov. 27 - Record Store Day. (Second or third Saturday in April & Black Friday in November)

* Sat., April 18 - National Junior Ranger Day. (Saturday in National Park Week)

* Sat., April 18 - Orthodox Holy Saturday. (Saturday before Orthodox Easter Sunday)
Will Christians Agree to Fix the Date of Easter?

* Sat., April 18 - Electrical Lineman Appreciation Day. (April 18)

* April 19 to 26 - International Dark-Sky Week. (Week of the New Moon in April)

* April 19 to 25 - National Library Week. (Second week of April)

* April 19 to 25 - National Volunteer Week. (Mid-April)

* April 19 to 25 - National Sky Awareness Week (SAW), a week set-aside to “look up” and to see the myriad of cloud patterns and formations that grace the sky. (Last full week of April)

* April 19 to 25 - Preservation Week for library and archive materials. (Last week of April)

* April 19 to 25 - National Infertility Awareness Week®. (Last week of April)

* April 19 to 25 - Administrative Professionals Week. (Last full week of April)

* April 19 to 25 - National Re-entry Week. (Last week of April)

* April 19 to 25 - National Crime Victims' Rights Week. (Early to mid-April)

* Sun., April 19 (Sunrise in Pittsburgh: 6:35 a.m. EDT / 10:35 UTC) - Orthodox Easter Sunday. [46 days after Orthodox Ash Wednesday; the first Sunday after the full moon (the Paschal Full Moon) following the March equinox (ecclesiastically, the equinox is reckoned to be on March 21, even though the equinox occurs, astronomically speaking, on March 20 in most years)]
Will Christians Agree to Fix the Date of Easter?

* April 20 to 24 - National Environmental Education Week. (EE Week - Week near Earth Day: April 22)

* April 20 to 24 - Severe Weather Awareness Week. (Pennsylvania: Mid-April)

* April 20 to 24 - National Work Zone Awareness Week. (Early to mid-April)

* Mon., April 20 - Patriots' Day. (Third Monday of April)

* Mon., April 20 (1946) - Dissolution of the League of Nations; succeeded by the United Nations (UN), which was formed on 1945 October 24. (April 20)

* Mon., April 20, Evening - World Night in Defence of the Starlight. (April 20, Evening)

* Mon., April 20, 3:00 p.m. EDT / 19:00 UTC - Moon at apogee: 252,563.8 statute miles / 406,462 kilometers.

* Tue., April 21 - National Library Workers Day. (Tuesday of National Library Week)

* Tue., April 21, 1:00 p.m. EDT / 17:00 UTC - Mercury 3 degrees north of the Moon.

* Wed., April 22 - National Bookmobile Day. (Wednesday of National Library Week)

* Wed., April 22 (1970) - 50th Anniversary: Earth Day. (April 22)

* Wed., April 22 (1994) - Announcement of discovery of the Top Quark, the most massive of all observed elementary particles. (April 22)

* Wed., April 22 - Administrative Professionals Day. (Wednesday of Administrative Professionals' Week, last full week of April)

* Wed., April 22, 2:00 a.m. EDT / 6:00 UTC (Best viewing: Midnight to Dawn) - Peak of Lyrid Meteor Shower. (April 22)

* Wed., April 22, 10:26 p.m. EDT / April 23, 2:26 UTC - Primary Moon Phase: New Moon - Lunation # 1204.

* Thur., April 23 - Teen Literature Day. (Thursday of National Library Week)

* Thur., April 23 - World Book and Copyright Day / World Book Night. (April 23)

* Thur., April 23 - World Laboratory Day. (April 23)

* Thur., April 23 - National Take Our Daughters and Sons To Work Day. (Fourth Thursday of April)

* April 23, Sunset to May 23, Sunset (In Pittsburgh - April 23 Sunset: 8:08 p.m. EDT / April 24, 0:08 UTC; May 23 Sunset: 8:38 p.m. EDT / May 24, 0:38 UTC) - Month of observance of Ramadan in the Islamic religion. The month lasts 29 to 30 days, dependent on visual sightings of the New Crescent Moon.

* April 24 to 30 - World Immunization Week. (April 24 to 30)

* Fri., April 24 - Arbor Day - National Arbor Day Foundation. (Last Friday of April)

* Fri., April 24 (1800) - Library of Congress established by an act of the U.S. Congress. (April 24)

* Fri., April 24 - Teach Children to Save Day. (Last Friday of April)

* April 25 to May 2 - National Infant Immunization Week (NIIW). (Mid-to-late April)

* Sat., April 25 (1953) - DNA Day - Commemorates the day in 1953 when James Watson, Francis Crick, Maurice Wilkins, Rosalind Franklin, and colleagues published papers in the journal Nature on the structure of DNA. (April 25)

* Sat., April 25 - World Penguin Day. (April 25)

* Sat., April 25 - Save the Frogs Day. (Last Saturday in April)
Also see news article.

* Sat., April 25 - World Malaria Day. (April 25)

* Sat., April 25, 10:00 a.m. to 2:00 p.m. Prevailing Local Time - National Prescription Drug Take-Back Day sponsored by the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration. (Last Saturday in April)

* Sat., April 25 - World Healing Day. (Last Saturday of April)

* Sun., April 26 (1920) - The 1920 Great Debate on the Scale of the Universe between Harlow Shapley of the Mount Wilson Observatory (who gave the keynote address at the 1941 dedication of the rather unique 10-inch Siderostat-Type Refractor Telescope at Pittsburgh's original Buhl Planetarium and Institute of Popular Science) and Allegheny Observatory Director Heber D. Curtis. (April 26)

* Sun., April 26 - World Intellectual Property Day. (April 26)

* Sun., April 26 - Help a Horse Day. (April 26)

* Sun., April 26, 5:00 a.m. EDT / 9:00 UTC - Uranus in conjunction with the Sun (Uranus not visible, even with a telescope).

* Sun., April 26, 7:00 a.m. EDT / 11:00 UTC - Asteroid 4 Vesta 0.1 degree south of the Moon; occultation: central and northeastern portions of Africa, most of the Middle East, southern portion of Kazakhstan, central and northern sections of India, China, most of Southeast Asia, Philippines, southern portion of Japan.

* Sun., April 26, 11:00 a.m. EDT / 15:00 UTC - Venus 6 degrees north of the Moon.

* April 27 to May 2 - International Astronomy Week. (Begins on the Monday preceding the Saturday designated as Astronomy Day)

* Mon., April 27, 6:00 p.m. EDT / 22:00 UTC - Moon 0.7 degree south of Open Star Cluster M35.

* Mon., April 27, 9:00 p.m. EDT / April 28, 1:00 UTC - Greatest brightness of Planet Venus for 2020: Apparent Visual Magnitude of -4.7.

* April 28 to May 6 (2001) - First Outer Space Tourist: Dennis Tito. (April 28 to May 6)

* April 28, 29 - Holocaust Remembrance Days (USA). (April 28, 29)

* Tue., April 28 - Workers' Memorial Day. (April 28)

* April 30, Sept. 30 - National PrepareAthon ! Day - Day to emphasize preparation for disasters and emergencies. (April 30, Sept. 30)

* Thur., April 30 - International Jazz Day. (April 30)

* Thur., April 30, 10:00 a.m. EDT / 14:00 UTC - Moon 1.6 degrees north of Beehive Open Star Cluster (M44).

* Thur., April 30, 4:38 p.m. EDT / 20:38 UTC - Primary Moon Phase: First Quarter.

* Fri., May 1 - Traditional Astronomical Cross-Quarter Day Beltaine, better known as May Day - Second traditional Astronomical Cross-Quarter Day of year; approximate mid-way point in Spring season. (May 1)
Actual Cross-Quarter Day.

* Saturday - May 2, Sept. 26 - Astronomy Day. [Saturday closest to First Quarter Primary Phase of the Moon, in April or May (Spring - Saturday of Astronomy Week) and in September or October (Autumn)]: Link 1 *** Link 2 *** Link 3

* Mon., May 4, 8:49 p.m. EDT / May 5, 0:49 UTC - Actual Astronomical Cross-Quarter Day Beltaine, better known as May Day - Second traditional Astronomical Cross-Quarter Day of year; mid-way point in Spring season (~May 5-6).
Traditional Cross-Quarter Day.

Astronomical Calendar: 2020 May
Monthly Observances This Month

" April showers bring May flowers !"

2020: Year of the Nurse and the Midwife 2020

FIRST PRIVATE CREWED SPACE LAUNCH TO ISS: SpaceX - May 27

Meteor Shower -
n-Aquarid (Eta Aquarid): May 4 to 7

Moon Phases:
Today *** Calendar Month

Planets, Stars, Sky Events:
Today *** This Week
Solar System *** Occultations
Constellations *** Star Chart

View International Space Station (ISS)
Rocket Launches This Month: Link 1 *** Link 2 *** Link 3 *** Link 4

Equinoxes (EQX), Solstices (SOLC), and Cross-Quarter (XQ) Days For This Year.
Chronological Cycles and Eras For This Year.
Dominical Letters: "E" & "D" - Used in a Perpetual Calendar. For This Leap Year.

Science Experiments Children & Teens Can Do At Home !

Astronomical Glossary
of Terms Used

Astronomical Calendar
Archives

Other
Astronomical Calendars: Link 1 * Link 2

10,000-Year Calendar

Rise & Set Times

Current Sky Events & Astro Phenomena

News: Astronomy, Space, Science --

Weekly: SpaceWatchtower Blog

Daily: SpaceWatchtower Twitter Feed

History of Pittsburgh's Original
Buhl Planetarium and Institute of Popular Science

Astronomy Links

Science Links


a.m. = Ante-Meridiem (Morning: Midnight to a moment before Noon)

p.m. = Post-Meridiem (Afternoon & Evening: a moment after Noon to a moment before Midnight of the next day)

EST = Eastern Standard Time *** EDT = Eastern Daylight Saving Time *** UTC = Coordinated Universal Time

SPECIAL NOTES:
(1) All astronomical or sky observations are always weather-permitting.
(2) For calendar entries which describe a relationship between two or more celestial objects, unless otherwise noted all relationships between celestial objects are visual relationships as seen from Earth only.


* April 23, Sunset to May 23, Sunset (In Pittsburgh - April 23 Sunset: 8:08 p.m. EDT / April 24, 0:08 UTC; May 23 Sunset: 8:38 p.m. EDT / May 24, 0:38 UTC) - Month of observance of Ramadan in the Islamic religion. The month lasts 29 to 30 days, dependent on visual sightings of the New Crescent Moon.

* April 25 to May 2 - National Infant Immunization Week (NIIW). (Mid-to-late April)

* April 27 to May 2 - International Astronomy Week. (Begins on the Monday preceding the Saturday designated as Astronomy Day)

* April 27 to May 3 - Children's Book Week (Last week of April and / or first week of May, beginning on Monday; Moved from 2007 Nov. 12 to 18; 2019: Centennial).

* April 28 to May 6 (2001) - First Outer Space Tourist: Dennis Tito. (April 28 to May 6)

* May 1 to 7 - Choose Privacy Week. (May 1 to 7)

* Fri., May 1 - Traditional Astronomical Cross-Quarter Day Beltaine, better known as May Day - Second traditional Astronomical Cross-Quarter Day of year; approximate mid-way point in Spring season. (May 1)
Actual Cross-Quarter Day.

* Fri., May 1 - International Space Day: Link 1 *** Link 2. (First Friday in May)

* Fri., May 1 - Law Day. (May 1)

* Fri., May 1 - Loyalty Day. (May 1)

* Saturday - May 2, Sept. 26 - Astronomy Day. [Saturday closest to First Quarter Primary Phase of the Moon, in April or May (Spring - Saturday of Astronomy Week) and in September or October (Autumn)]: Link 1 *** Link 2 *** Link 3

* Sat., May 2 - National Wildfire Community Preparedness Day. (First Saturday in May)

* Sat., May 2 - National Scrapbooking Day. (First Saturday in May)

* Sat., May 2 - National Comic Book Day. (First Saturday in May)

* May 3 to 9 - Public Service Recognition Week (PSRW). (First full week of May)

* May 3 to 9 - North American Occupational Safety and Health Week. (First full week of May)

* May 3 to 9 - Arson Awareness Week. (First full week of May)

* May 3 to 9 - Hurricane Preparedness Week. (Mid-May)

* May 3 to 9 - National Travel and Tourism Week. (First full week of May)

* May 3 to 9 - POSTPONED - National Small Business Week. (End of April, beginning of May)

* Sun., May 3 - Sun Day. (May 3)

* Sun., May 3 - World Press Freedom Day (May 3).

* Sun., May 3 - Password Day. (May 3)

* Sun., May 3 (1971) - Anniversary of the National Public Radio (NPR) news program, "All Things Considered" (ATC). (May 3)

* Sun., May 3 - National Day of Prayer. (~ May 3)

* May 4 to 8 - Small Worlds Week - NASA celebrates the Solar System's two smallest planets: Mercury and Mars. (First school-week of May)

* May 4 to 8 - National PTA Teacher Appreciation Week. (First full school-week of May)

* Mon., May 4 - "Star Wars" Day - "May the Fourth Be With You." (May 4)

* Mon., May 4 - Bird Day - Created in 1894 in the Western Pennsylvania community of Oil City. (May 4)

* Mon., May 4 - Greenery Day / Japan Arbor Day. (May 4)

* Mon., May 4, 6:00 p.m. EDT / 22:00 UTC - Mercury in superior conjunction with the Sun (Mercury not visible, even with a telescope).

* Mon., May 4, 8:49 p.m. EDT / May 5, 0:49 UTC - Actual Astronomical Cross-Quarter Day Beltaine, better known as May Day - Second traditional Astronomical Cross-Quarter Day of year; mid-way point in Spring season (~May 5-6).
Traditional Cross-Quarter Day.

* Tue., May 5 - National Astronaut Day. (May 5)

* Tue., May 5 - Give Local America Day to raise money for local non-profit organizations. (First Monday or Tuesday of May)

* Tue., May 5 - National Teacher Day. (Tuesday of Teacher Appreciation Week)

* Tue., May 5 - World Asthma Day. (First Tuesday in May)

* Tue., May 5 - Cinco de Mayo. (Mexico: May 5)

* Tue., May 5, 1:00 a.m. EDT / 5:00 UTC (Best viewing: Midnight to Dawn) - Peak of n-Aquarid (Eta Aquarid) Meteor Shower - remnants from Halley's Comet. (May 4 to 7)

* Tue., May 5, 11:00 p.m. EDT / May 6, 3:00 UTC - Moon at perigee: 223,478.6 statute miles / 359,654 kilometers.

* May 6 to 12 - National Nurses Week (from May 6, also known as National Nurses Day, through May 12, the birthday of Florence Nightingale, the founder of modern nursing).

* Wed., May 6 - National Nurses Day / National RN Recognition Day (May 6).

* Wed., May 6 - National School Nurse Day. (Wednesday Of National Nurses Week)

* Wed., May 6 - National Student Nurses Day. (Wednesday Of National Nurses Week - originally May 8)

* Wed., May 6 - Read Your Farmers’ Almanac In The Bathroom Day. (May 6)

* Wed., May 6 - Bike to School Day. (First Wed. in May)

* Wed., May 6 - National Tourist Appreciation Day. (May 6)

* Thur., May 7 - World Password Day. (May 7)

* Thur., May 7, 6:45 a.m. EDT / 10:45 UTC - Primary Moon Phase: Full Moon - Flower Moon.

* Fri., May 8 (1828) - World Red Cross and Red Crescent Day. (May 8)

* Fri., May 8 (1945) - Victory in Europe Day. (May 8)

* May 9 to 17 - Armed Forces Week. [USA: Second Saturday to Sunday of following week in May (ends the fourth Sunday if the month begins on a Sunday, as in 2016)]

* Sat., May 9 - Stamp-Out Hunger Food Drive. (Second Saturday of May)

* Sat., May 9 - World Fair Trade Day. (Second Saturday of May)

* Sat., May 9 - International Migratory Bird Day. (Second Saturday in May)

* Sat., May 9 - National Train Day. (Celebrated on the Saturday closest to the anniversary of the driving of the Golden Spike for the completion of the First Transcontinental Railroad in the United States of America: 1869 May 10)

* May 10 to 16 - Food Allergy Awareness Week (FAAW).

* May 10 to 16 - National Police Week. [Week including National Peace Officers' Memorial Day (May 15)]

* May 10 to 16 - National Transportation Week / National Defense Transportation Week. [Week in which National Defense Transportation Day falls (Friday)]

* May 10 to 16 - Women's Health Week. (Week that begins on Mothers' Day)

* May 10 to 16 - Bicycle Week / Bike-to-Work Week. (Second week of May)

* May 10 to 16 - National Hospital Week (Second week of May)

* Sun., May 10 - Mothers' Day. (Second Sunday in May)

* Sun., May 10 (1869) - Driving of the Golden Spike for the completion of the First Transcontinental Railroad in the United States of America. (May 10)

* Sun., May 10 - Mercury at perihelion.

* May 11 to 15 - Neuropathy Awareness Week. (Second full week of week-days in May)

* Mon., May 11 - Women's Checkup Day. (Monday after Mothers' Day - Monday of Women's Health Week)

* Tue., May 12 - National Lab Day. (May 12)

* Tue., May 12 - International Nurses Day, the birth date of pioneering nurse Florence Nightingale, and the end of the annual Nurses Week. (May 12)

* Tue., May 12 - Limerick Day. (May 12)

* Tue., May 12, 5:41 a.m. EDT / 9:41 UTC - Jupiter 2 degrees north of the Moon (conjunction).

* Tue., May 12, 2:11 p.m. EDT / 18:11 UTC - Saturn 3 degrees north of the Moon (conjunction).

* Wed., May 13 (1611) - “Galileo Confirmation Day,” anniversary of the day Jesuit priests held a banquet in honor of Galileo Galilei, for his discovery of four moons orbiting the planet Jupiter. (May 13)

* May 14 to 23, 8:00 to 10:00 p.m. Prevailing Local Time - CITIZEN SCIENCE - Annual Globe at Night campaign, to raise public awareness of the impact of light pollution by encouraging everyone everywhere to measure local levels of night sky brightness and contribute observations on-line to a world map.

* Thur., May 14, 10:03 a.m. EDT / 14:03 UTC - Primary Moon Phase: Last Quarter.

* Thur., May 14, 10:00 p.m. EDT / May 15, 2:00 UTC - Mars 3 degrees north of the Moon (conjunction).

* May 15 to September 30 - Recreational Boating Season. (May 15 to Sept. 30)

* Fri., May 15 - National Defense Transportation Day. (Third Friday in May - Friday of National Defense Transportation Week)

* Fri., May 15 - Bike-to-Work Day. (Third Friday in May)

* Fri., May 15 - National Peace Officers' Memorial Day. (May 15)

* Fri., May 15 - International Day of Families. (May 15)

* Fri., May. 15 - Wear Your Life-Jacket to Work Day. (Friday before the beginning of Safe Boating Week)

* May 16 to 22 - National Safe Boating Week in the beginning of the Recreational Boating Season. (First full week before Memorial Day Weekend)

* Sat., May 16 - Launch of U.S. Air Force X-37B Space-Plane (Orbital Test Vehicle) for the program's sixth mission (OTV-6) / AFSPC-7 Mission, by a United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket from Space Launch Complex-41 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida.

* Sat., May 16 - Armed Forces Day. (USA: Third Saturday in May)

* May 17 to 23 - Emergency Medical Services (EMS) Week. (Third full week of May)

* May 17 to 24 - Infrastructure Week. (MId-May)

* May 18 to May 24 - National Tire Safety Week. (Third week of May, Monday to Sunday)

* Mon., May 18 - International Museum Day. (May 18)

* Mon., May 18 - Victoria Day - In Canada, informally considered the beginning of the Summer season. (Last Monday before May 25; the Monday between May 18 and 24)

* Mon., May 18 - Visit Your Relatives Day. (May 18)

* Mon., May 18, 12:45 a.m. EDT / 4:45 UTC - Close approach between Jupiter and Saturn (conjunction).

* Mon., May 18, 4:00 a.m. EDT / 8:00 UTC - Moon at apogee: 252,017.6 statute miles / 405,583 kilometers.

* Tue., May 19 - National May Ray Day This is a day to be outside, enjoying the sunshine and soaking up some rays from our nearest star. (May 19)

* Tue., May. 19 - Hepatitis Testing Day. (May 19)

* Tue., May 19, 7:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m. EDT / 11:00 UTC to May 21, 0:00 UTC - PENNSYLVANIA 2020 PRIMARY ELECTION MOVED TO JUNE 2 DUE TO PANDEMIC EMERGENCY - Primary Election Day: Pennsylvania (Third Tuesday in May except during Presidential Election Years when it is held on the Fourth Tuesday in April).

* Wed., May 20 (1877) - Anniversary: The Duquesne Incline cable car railway in Pittsburgh. (May 20)

* Wed., May 20 - Weights and Measures Day. (May 20)

* Wed., May 20 - Endangered Species Day. (May 20)

* Wed., May 20 - Emergency Medical Services for Children (EMSC) Day. [Wednesday of Emergency Medical Services (EMS) Week]

* Wed., May 20 - Food Revolution Day. (May 20)

* Thur., May 21 (1881) - Founding of the American Red Cross. (May 21)

* Thur., May 21 (1927) - Charles Lindbergh completes first solo trans-Atlantic flight and first non-stop flight between the Americas and main-land Europe, when landing in Paris in his Spirit of St. Louis airplane. (May 21)

* Thur., May 21 - World Day for Cultural Diversity for Dialogue and Development. (UN: May 21)

* Thur., May 21 - Global Accessibility Awareness Day. (Third Thursday in May)

* Thur., May 21, 9:00 p.m. EDT / May 22, 1:00 UTC - NBC-TV - Red Nose Day / Comedy Day. (Third or fourth Thursday in May)

* Fri., May 22 - National Maritime Day. (May 22)
Pittsburgh's original Buhl Planetarium and Institute of Popular Science displayed the largest Mercator's Projection Map of the World, originally produced by the U.S. Maritime Commission for display at the 1939 World's Fair in New York City.

* Fri., May 22 - Don't Fry Day - The National Council on Skin Cancer Prevention Encourages Sun Safety Awareness. (Friday before Memorial Day).

* Fri., May 22, 3:00 a.m. EDT / 7:00 UTC - Mercury 0.9 degree south of Venus (conjunction).

* Fri., May 22, 1:39 p.m. EDT / 17:39 UTC - Primary Moon Phase: New Moon - Lunation # 1205.

* Sat., May 23 - World Turtle Day. (May 23)

* Sat., May 23 - World Crohn's and Colitis Day. (May 23)

* Sat., May 23, 10:40 p.m. EDT / May 24, 2:40 UTC - Venus 4 degrees north of the Moon (conjunction).

* Sun., May 24, 7:00 a.m. EDT / 11:00 UTC - Mercury 3 degrees north of the Moon (conjunction).

* Sun., May 24, 11:00 a.m. EDT / 15:00 UTC - Asteroid 4 Vesta 0.6 degree south of the Moon (conjunction); occultation: the vast majority of North America (NOT, Pacific Coast, Alaska, northwestern portion of Canada), northern portion of the Caribbean Sea, Greenland, most of Europe (NOT south), western portion of Russia, northern portion of the Middle East..

* May 25 to 31 - Camping & Caravanning Week. (End of May / Beginning of June)

* Mon., May 25 (1961) - Anniversary of when U.S. President John F. Kennedy, in a special speech before a joint session of the U.S. Congress, proposes a new national goal: "First, I believe that this nation should commit itself to achieving the goal, before this decade is out, of landing a man on the moon and returning him safely to the earth." (May 25)

* Mon., May 25 - Memorial Day. (USA: Last Monday in May)
Originally observed as Decoration Day. (USA: May 30)

* Mon., May 25 - National Missing Children's Day. (May 25)

* Wed., May 27, 12:29 p.m. Hawaii - Aleutian Standard Time (HAST) / 6:29 p.m. EDT / 22:29 UTC - Time in Honolulu, the state capital of Hawaii, of twice-annual Lāhainā Noon, the time when the Sun appears at the Zenith in the sky [directly overhead--with no solar shadow visible (weather-permitting)] at Local Solar Noon; Lāhainā Noon can only occur in the Tropics, in locations between the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn on the world globe. (~May 27, ~July 16):
Link 1 *** Link 2.

* Wed., May 27 - National Senior Health & Fitness Day. (Last Wednesday in May)

* Wed., May 27, 4:32 p.m. EDT / 20:32 UTC - FIRST PRIVATE CREWED SPACE LAUNCH - Launch (from historic Launch Pad 39A, Kennedy Space Center, Florida) of SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket with a Crew Dragon Spacecraft to dock with the International Space Station (ISS); astronauts: Robert Behnken and Douglas Hurley:
Link 1 *** Link 2 *** Link 3

* Thur., May 28, 4:48 a.m. EDT / 8:48 UTC - Double-shadow (shadows of 2 Galilean Moons) transit on Jupiter; visible, with difficulty, through telescope after sunset or before sunrise.

* Fri., May 29 - 529 College Savings Programs Day. (May 29)

* Fri., May 29, 8:13 p.m. EDT / May 30, 0:13 UTC - Manhattan-Henge - View of Half Sun on the Manhattan, New York City, east--west street grid: Link 1 *** Link 2. (May 29, July 13)

* Fri., May 29, 11:30 p.m. EDT / May 30, 3:30 UTC - Primary Moon Phase: First Quarter.

* Sat., May 30, 8:12 p.m. EDT / May 31, 0:12 UTC - Manhattan-Henge - View of Full Sun on the Manhattan, New York City, east--west street grid: Link 1 *** Link 2. (May 30, July 12)

* Sat., May 30 - Decoration Day. (USA: May 30)
Now observed as Memorial Day. (USA: Last Monday in May)

* Sun., May 31 - World No Tobacco Day (WNTD). (May 31)

Astronomical Calendar: 2020 June
Monthly Observances This Month

2020: Year of the Nurse and the Midwife 2020

Eclipses in 2020 June ---
Penumbral Lunar Eclipse: June 5 *** Annular & Partial Solar Eclipse: June 21

Meteor Shower -- Arietid: peaks June 8.

Summer Solstice: June 20 to 22

Moon Phases:
Today *** Calendar Month

Planets, Stars, Sky Events:
Today *** This Week
Solar System *** Occultations
Constellations *** Star Chart

View International Space Station (ISS)
Rocket Launches This Month: Link 1 *** Link 2 *** Link 3 *** Link 4

Equinoxes (EQX), Solstices (SOLC), and Cross-Quarter (XQ) Days For This Year.
Chronological Cycles and Eras For This Year.
Dominical Letters: "E" & "D" - Used in a Perpetual Calendar. For This Leap Year.

Science Experiments Children & Teens Can Do At Home !

Astronomical Glossary
of Terms Used

Astronomical Calendar
Archives

Other
Astronomical Calendars: Link 1 * Link 2

10,000-Year Calendar

Rise & Set Times

Current Sky Events & Astro Phenomena

News: Astronomy, Space, Science --

Weekly: SpaceWatchtower Blog

Daily: SpaceWatchtower Twitter Feed

History of Pittsburgh's Original
Buhl Planetarium and Institute of Popular Science

Astronomy Links

Science Links


a.m. = Ante-Meridiem (Morning: Midnight to a moment before Noon)

p.m. = Post-Meridiem (Afternoon & Evening: a moment after Noon to a moment before Midnight of the next day)

EST = Eastern Standard Time *** EDT = Eastern Daylight Saving Time *** UTC = Coordinated Universal Time

SPECIAL NOTES:
(1) All astronomical or sky observations are always weather-permitting.
(2) For calendar entries which describe a relationship between two or more celestial objects, unless otherwise noted all relationships between celestial objects are visual relationships as seen from Earth only.


* May 15 to September 30 - Recreational Boating Season. (May 15 to Sept. 30)

* June 1 to 7 - National CPR and AED Awareness Week. (June 1 to 7)

* Mon., June 1 - Beginning of Meteorological Season of Summer in Northern Hemisphere of Earth / Meteorological Season of Winter in Southern Hemisphere. (June 1)

* Mon., June 1 - Beginning of Hurricane Season in the Atlantic Ocean and Caribbean Sea. (June 1)

* Mon., June 1 - International Children's Day. (June 1)

* Mon., June 1 - Global Day of Parents. (June 1)

* Mon., June 1 (1980), 5:00 p.m. EDT / 21:00 UTC - 40th Anniversary: Beginning of 24 / 7 / 365 News Broadcasting on Cable Television - Cable News Network (CNN): Link 1 *** Link 2 (June 1)

* Tue., June 2 - National Gun Violence Awareness Day. (June 2)

* Tue., June 2, 7:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m. EDT / 11:00 UTC to June 3, 0:00 UTC - PENNSYLVANIA 2020 PRIMARY ELECTION
Original and regular Presidential Election Year Pennsylvania Primary Election Day (Tue., May 19, 7:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m. EDT / 11:00 UTC to May 21, 0:00 UTC) moved to June 2 due to the COVID-19 Pandemic Emergency
Primary Election Day: Pennsylvania (Third Tuesday in May except during Presidential Election Years when it is held on the Fourth Tuesday in April).

* Wed., June 3 - World Bicycle Day (UN). (June 3)

* Wed., June 3, 12:00 Midnight EDT / 4:00 UTC - Moon at perigee: 226,406.5 statute miles / 364,366 kilometers.

* Wed., June 3, 2:00 p.m. EDT / 18:00 UTC - Venus at inferior conjunction (Venus not visible, even with a telescope).

* Thur., June 4 (1784) - French woman is first woman ride in a free-floating balloon. (June 4)

* Thur., June 4, 7:21 a.m. EDT / 11:21 UTC - Double-shadow (shadows of 2 Galilean Moons) transit on Jupiter; visible, with difficulty, through telescope after sunset or before sunrise.

* Fri., June 5 - Reset the Net Day for privacy on the Internet. (June 5)

* Fri., June 5 - United Nations World Environment Day. (June 5)
( For 2010 United Nations World Environment Day Host City for North America: Pittsburgh.)

* Fri., June 5 - National Donut Day - Created by The Salvation Army in Chicago in 1938 to honor those of their members who served doughnuts to soldiers during World War I. (First Friday of June)

* Fri., June 5, 3:12 p.m. EDT / 19:12 UTC - Primary Moon Phase: Full Moon - Strawberry Moon.

* Fri., June 5, 3:25:02.0 p.m. EDT / 19:25:02.0 UTC - Time of Greatest Eclipse - Penumbral Lunar Eclipse / Penumbral Eclipse of the Moon visible in most of Europe, most of Asia, all of Africa, all of Australia, and extreme eastern portion of South America (penumbral lunar eclipse difficult to distinguish, as it makes the Moon appear only slightly dimmer than a normal Full Moon).
More Information: Link 1 *** Link 2 *** Link 3
All Lunar Eclipses / Eclipses of the Moon are safe to view with the naked-eyes (one-power), binoculars, or telescopes.

* Sat., June 6 - National Trails Day®. (First Saturday in June)

* Sat., June 6 - Name Tag Day. (First Saturday in June)
Pittsburgh Name Tag Day Event.

* Sat., June 6 (1944) - Anniversary: D-Day Allied invasion of Normandy during World War II. (June 6)

* Sat., June 6 (1968) - Anniversary: Assassination of U.S. Senator (D-NY) and Presidential Candidate Robert F. Kennedy. (June 6)

* June 7 to 13 - OSHA Safe and Sound Week. (Second week of June)

* June 7 to 13 - Work-Force Development Week. (Second week of June)

* Sun., June 7 - National Cancer Survivors Day®. (First Sunday in June)

* Mon., June 8 - World Oceans Day. (June 8)

* Mon., June 8 (Best viewing: Midnight to Dawn) - Peak of Arietid Meteor Shower. (June 7 to 9)

* Mon., June 8, early morning - Waning gibbous phase Moon moves to provide a small triangle with Jupiter and Saturn, as it appears in the sky.

* Mon., June 8, 1:21 p.m. EDT / 17:21 UTC - Jupiter 2 degrees north of the Moon.

* Mon., June 8, 10:12 p.m. EDT / June 9, 2:12 UTC - Saturn 2 degrees north of the Moon.

* Tue., June 9 - National Children's Day. (Second Sunday in June)

* Thur., June 11 (1638; originally recorded as June 1 O.S. of the Julian Calendar) - First earthquake recorded in North America: New England / St. Lawrence Valley region. (June 11)

* Thur., June 11 (1997) - First photograph taken by a cellular telephone camera / Birth of Camera-Phone. (June 11)

* Thur., June 11, 10:33 a.m. EDT / 14:33 UTC - Double-shadow (shadows of 2 Galilean Moons) transit on Jupiter; visible, with difficulty, through telescope after sunset or before sunrise.

* June 12 to 19 - Cephalopod Week highlighting sea creatures including squids and octopi. (Science Friday / National Public Radio: 3rd week of June, dating Friday to Friday)

* Fri., June 12 - International NASH Day to raise awareness about non-alcoholic Steatohepatitis & Fatty Liver Disease. (June 12)

* Fri., June 12, 8:00 a.m. EDT / 12:00 UTC - Mars 1.7 degrees south of Neptune.

* Fri., June 12, 7:55 p.m. EDT / 23:55 UTC - Mars 3 degrees north of the Moon; visible in the sky together in the early morning.

* June 13 to 22, 8:00 to 10:00 p.m. Prevailing Local Time - CITIZEN SCIENCE - Annual Globe at Night campaign, to raise public awareness of the impact of light pollution by encouraging everyone everywhere to measure local levels of night sky brightness and contribute observations on-line to a world map. (Monthly)

* Sat., June 13 - National Get Outdoors Day. (Second Saturday in June)

* Sat., June 13, 2:24 a.m. EDT / 6:24 UTC - Primary Moon Phase: Last Quarter.

* June 14 to 20 - National Flag Week. (Week including Flag Day, June 14)

* June 14 to 20 - Fire-Fighter Safety Stand-Down Week / Fire and Emergency Services Safety and Health Week. (Third week of June)

* Sun., June 14 (1777) - Flag Day - USA. Anniversary of date U.S. Congress adopted 13 stars and 13 stripes as the American flag; now flag includes 50 stars for each of the 50 states in the Union. (June 14)

* Sun., June 14 - At mid-northern latitudes (~40 degrees North Latitude, which is the latitude of Pittsburgh), earliest sunrise of the year (Pittsburgh - earliest sunrise: 5:49 a.m. EDT / 9:49 UTC). (June 14)

* Sun., June 14 - World Blood Donor Day. (June 14)

* Sun., June 14, 9:00 p.m. EDT / June 15, 1:00 UTC - Moon at apogee: 251,403.67752 statute miles / 404,595 kilometers.

* June 15 to 21 - Men's Health Week. (Week leading to and including Father's Day)

* Mon., June 15 (1215) - Anniversary of the Magna Carta, also known as The Great Charter of the Liberties of England, originally issued. (June 15)

* Tue., June 16 - Bloomsday - Commemoration and celebration of the life of Irish writer James Joyce, during which the events of his novel Ulysses (which is set on 1904 June 16) are relived. (June 16)

* Tue., June 16, 10:00 p.m. EDT / June 17, 2:00 UTC - Uranus 4 degrees north of the Moon.

* Thur., June 18 - Phi Day. (June 18)

* Thur., June 18 - "Dump the Pump" Day, sponsored by the American Public Transportation Association and local public transit agencies nationwide, including Pittsburgh's Port Authority of Allegheny County. (Third Thursday in June)

* Thur., June 18 - Recess at Work Day. (Third Thursday in June)

* Thur., June 18 - Autistic Pride Day about shifting views of autism from "disease" to "difference." (June 18)

* Thur., June 18 (1812) - Anniversary: Day the United States of America declared war on the British Empire, beginning the War of 1812. (June 18)

* Thur., June 18, 2:33 p.m. EDT / 18:33 UTC - Double-shadow (shadows of 2 Galilean Moons) transit on Jupiter; visible, with difficulty, through telescope after sunset or before sunrise.

* Fri., June 19 (1865) - Juneteenth Independence Day commemorating the day in 1865 when the State of Texas abolished slavery, and more generally the end of slavery in the former Confederate States of America. (June 19)

* Fri., June 19 - Wear Blue (Friday) Day to show their concern for the health and wellbeing of boys and men. (Friday of Men's Health Week / Friday before Fathers' Day)

* Fri., June 19, 4:53 a.m. EDT / 8:53 UTC - Venus 0.7 degree south of the Moon; occultation: Azore Islands, Canary Islands, northern and eastern portions of Canada, Greenland, northwestern section of Europe, northern and central sections of Russia, northern portion of Mongolia. Look for Venus, in the evening sky, then look carefully for a very slender, waxing crescent Moon.

* Sat., June 20 - World Refugee Day. (June 20)

* Sat., June 20, 12:00 Noon Mountain Daylight Saving Time (MDT) / 2:00 p.m. EDT / 18:00 UTC - Summer Solstice Annual Event - Single beam of sunlight shines on a silver dollar embedded in the floor of the Art Museum at the University of Wyoming in Laramie, Wyoming. (June 20)

* Sat., June 20, 5:44 p.m. EDT / 21:44 UTC - Summer Solstice; Season of Summer begins in Earth's Northern Hemisphere / Season of Winter begins in Earth's Southern Hemisphere. (June 20 to 22)
Also see ---
** Solstice 24 Celebration special one-hour celebration (5:00 to 6:00 p.m. / 17:00 to 18:00 local time) for each of the Earth's 24 time zones.
** 1985 to 1991: Summer "Solstice Day" Annual Free Day at Buhl Planetarium.

* June 21 to 27 - Lightning Safety Awareness Week; see also Pittsburgh Post-Gazette article. (June)

* Sun., June 21 - International Sun-Day, a celebration of Astronomy and our planet's very important star, the Sun. (Sunday near the Summer Solstice)

* Sun., June 21 - Fathers' Day. (Third Sunday in June)

* Sun., June 21 - National Selfie Day. (June 21)

* Sun., June 21 (1948) - Columbia Records introduces 33 1/3-RPM (revolutions per minute), micro-groove LP (long-playing), vinyl record. (June 21)

* Sun., June 21 - Make Music Day music festivals around the world on or near the day of the Summer Solstice. (June 21)

* Sun., June 21 - International Day of Yoga. (June 21)

* Sun., June 21 - National Aboriginal Day - Canada. (June 21)

* Sun., June 21, 2:39:59.3 a.m. EDT / 6:39:59.3 UTC - Time of Greatest Eclipse - Annular Solar Eclipse / Annular Eclipse of the Sun visible from a portion of Africa (including the Central African Republic, Congo, and Ethiopia), southern portion of Pakistan, southern portion of India, and China.
A Partial Solar Eclipse / Partial Eclipse of the Sun will be visible in southern and eastern sections of Europe, much of Asia, northern portion of Australia, and much of Africa, Indian Ocean, and Pacific Ocean.
More Information: Link 1 *** Link 2 *** Link 3
SPECIAL ALERT: Never look directly at any Solar Eclipse / Eclipse of the Sun unless you have the proper equipment and proper training to do so safely!
SOLAR ECLIPSE / ECLIPSE OF THE SUN: TIPS FOR SAFE VIEWING

* Sun., June 21, 2:41 a.m. EDT / 6:41 UTC - Primary Moon Phase: New Moon - Lunation # 1206.

* June 22 to 28 - National Pollinator Week. (Third or Fourth Week of June)

* Tue., June 23 {1868) - Date of patent for the first commercially successful typewriter. (June 23)

* Tue., June 23 - Mercury at aphelion.

* Wed., June 24 - Midsummer Day (Date of Summer Solstice in Roman times)
and St. Jean Baptiste Day / Quebec National Holiday. (June 24)

* June 24 (1947) & July 2 (1947) - Both dates are celebrated as World UFO Day for the first two well-publicized sightings / events regarding what has come to be known as Unidentified Flying Objects (UFOs) ---
** 1947 June 24: Sighting of 9 UFOs near Mount Rainier, Washington by businessman and private aircraft pilot Kenneth Arnold.
** 1947 July 2: Alleged crash, on the evening of 1947 July 4, of a UFO about 30-to-40 miles northwest of Roswell, New Mexico.
(June 24 & July 2)

* Thur., June 25, Late Evening (1638) - The first astronomical event recorded by native Europeans in continental North America was a total lunar eclipse on 1638 June 25 to 26. (June 25)
Also see information on the total lunar eclipse used by Christopher Columbus to scare natives into providing food and other provisions for his sailors: Link 1 *** Link 2.

* Fri., June 26 (1974) - Introduction and first scanning of the Universal Product Code (UPC) bar-code, on a pack of Wrigley Company chewing gum. (June 26)

* June 27 to 28 - Annual Ham / Amateur Radio Field Day weekend, sponsored in the United States by the American Radio Relay League (ARRL). When amateur radio operators test emergency radio equipment, operations, and procedures, which could be put in-use during hurricanes, tornadoes, or other public emergencies. (Always the fourth full weekend In June)
More information: Link 1 *** Link 2

* Sat., June 27 - At mid-northern latitudes (~40 degrees North Latitude, which is the latitude of Pittsburgh), latest sunset of the year (Pittsburgh - latest sunset: 8:54 p.m. EDT / June 28, 0:54 UTC). (June 27)

* Sat., June 27 - Annual Pennsylvania Firefly Festival in the Allegheny National Forest near Tionesta, Pennsylvania, highlighting Synchronous Fireflies. (Fourth Saturday of June)

* Sat., June 27 (1967) - First Automatic Teller Machine (ATM) goes into use at Barclays Bank's Enfield Town Branch in North London, England. (June 27)

* Sat., June 27 - National HIV Testing Day (NHTD). (June 27)

* Sat., June 27 - Tau Day - Day celebrating the value of 2Pi (~6.28), designated Tau, the ratio of a circle's circumference to its radius. (June 28)
More on Tau Day.

* Sun., June 28, 4:16 a.m. EDT / 8:16 UTC - Primary Moon Phase: First Quarter.

* Mon., June 29, 10:00 p.m. EDT / June 30, 2:00 UTC - Moon at perigee: 229,259.87235 statute miles / 368,958 kilometers.

* Tue., June 30 [June 17 O.S. (Old Calendar System / Julian Calendar) used in Russia at the time] (1908) - Anniversary of the Tunguska Blast caused by an air blast of large meteoroid or comet fragment. (June 30)

* Tue., June 30 - Asteroid Day - Annual global awareness movement that brings people from around the world together to learn about asteroids and what we can do to protect our planet, our families, communities, and future generations. Asteroid Day is held on the anniversary of the 1908 June 30 Siberian Tunguska event, the largest asteroid impact on Earth in recent history. (June 30)

* Tue., June 30 (1970) - 50th Anniversary: First commercial video telephone call (AT&T Bell Labs "PicturePhone") between Pittsburgh Mayor Pete Flaherty and ALCOA Chairman and Chief Executive Officer John Harper occurred in Pittsburgh on the day before general customer PicturePhone service began, when 38 PicturePhones were in use at eight Pittsburgh companies, as well as Pittsburgh's news / talk radio station, NBC owned-and-operated WJAS-AM 1320 (which was involved in the video telephone service inauguration). Two public demonstration, PicturePhone booths were also installed on the Mezzanine of the original Buhl Planetarium and Institute of Popular Science (a.k.a. Buhl Science Center), Pittsburgh's science and technology museum from 1939 to 1991, as part of the museum's Bell Telephone exhibit. (June 30)
Link 1 *** Link 2 *** Link 3 *** Link 4 *** Link 5
More on the History of Video Telephone Service
Photograph of a PicturePhone Mod II, used during the 1970 roll-out of the commercial video telephone service.
PicturePhone Service depicted in the film, "2001: A Space Odyssey"

* Tue., June 30 - Social Media Day. (June 30)

* Tue., June 30 - Last day of calendar year Second Quarter. (June 30)

* Tue., June 30 - Last day of Fiscal Year - Pennsylvania. (June 30)

* Tue., June 30, 11:00 p.m. EDT / July 1, 3:00 UTC - Mercury at inferior conjunction with the Sun (Mercury not visible, even with a telescope).

Astronomical Calendar: 2020 July
Monthly Observances This Month

2020: Year of the Nurse and the Midwife 2020

Eclipse Visible in Western Hemisphere:
Penumbral Lunar Eclipse: July 5

Meteor Shower -- S. Delta-Aquarid: peaks July 27 to 29.

July 20: "Moon Day"
Anniversary: 1st Landing of Humans on Another Celestial Body - Earth's Moon !

Moon Phases:
Today *** Calendar Month

Planets, Stars, Sky Events:
Today *** This Week
Solar System *** Occultations
Constellations *** Star Chart

View International Space Station (ISS)
Rocket Launches This Month: Link 1 *** Link 2 *** Link 3 *** Link 4

Equinoxes (EQX), Solstices (SOLC), and Cross-Quarter (XQ) Days For This Year.
Chronological Cycles and Eras For This Year.
Dominical Letters: "E" & "D" - Used in a Perpetual Calendar. For This Leap Year.

Science Experiments Children & Teens Can Do At Home !

Astronomical Glossary
of Terms Used

Astronomical Calendar
Archives

Other
Astronomical Calendars: Link 1 * Link 2

10,000-Year Calendar

Rise & Set Times

Current Sky Events & Astro Phenomena

News: Astronomy, Space, Science --

Weekly: SpaceWatchtower Blog

Daily: SpaceWatchtower Twitter Feed

History of Pittsburgh's Original
Buhl Planetarium and Institute of Popular Science

Astronomy Links

Science Links


a.m. = Ante-Meridiem (Morning: Midnight to a moment before Noon)

p.m. = Post-Meridiem (Afternoon & Evening: a moment after Noon to a moment before Midnight of the next day)

EST = Eastern Standard Time *** EDT = Eastern Daylight Saving Time *** UTC = Coordinated Universal Time

SPECIAL NOTES:
(1) All astronomical or sky observations are always weather-permitting.
(2) For calendar entries which describe a relationship between two or more celestial objects, unless otherwise noted all relationships between celestial objects are visual relationships as seen from Earth only.


* May 15 to September 30 - Recreational Boating Season. (May 15 to Sept. 30)

* Tue., June 30, 11:00 p.m. EDT / July 1, 3:00 UTC - Mercury at inferior conjunction with the Sun (Mercury not visible, even with a telescope).

* July 1 to 3 (1863) - Anniversary of the Battle of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania of the American Civil War: Link 1 *** Link 2. (July 1 to 3)

* Wed., July 1 (1970) - 50th Anniversary: Beginning of commercial video telephone service (AT&T Bell Labs "PicturePhone"), when 38 PicturePhones were in use at eight Pittsburgh companies, as well as Pittsburgh's news / talk radio station, NBC owned-and-operated WJAS-AM 1320 (which was involved in the video telephone service inauguration). Two public demonstration, PicturePhone booths were also installed on the Mezzanine of the original Buhl Planetarium and Institute of Popular Science (a.k.a. Buhl Science Center), Pittsburgh's science and technology museum from 1939 to 1991, as part of the museum's Bell Telephone exhibit. The very first commercial video telephone call came the previous day (1970 June 30), when Pittsburgh Mayor Pete Flaherty called ALCOA Chairman and Chief Executive Officer John Harper. (July 1)
Link 1 *** Link 2 *** Link 3 *** Link 4 *** Link 5
More on the History of Video Telephone Service
Photograph of a PicturePhone Mod II, used during the 1970 roll-out of the commercial video telephone service.
PicturePhone Service depicted in the film, "2001: A Space Odyssey"

* Wed., July 1 (1867) - Anniversary: Dominion Day / Canada Day. (Canada: July 1).

* Wed., July 1 - First day of Fiscal Year - Pennsylvania. (July 1)

* Wed., July 1 - First day of calendar year. Third Quarter (July 1)

* Thur., July 2 - Mid-point of year. (July 2)

* June 24 (1947) & July 2 (1947) - Both dates are celebrated as World UFO Day for the first two well-publicized sightings / events regarding what has come to be known as Unidentified Flying Objects (UFOs) ---
** 1947 June 24: Sighting of 9 UFOs near Mount Rainier, Washington by businessman and private aircraft pilot Kenneth Arnold.
** 1947 July 2: Alleged crash, on the evening of 1947 July 4, of a UFO about 30-to-40 miles northwest of Roswell, New Mexico.
(June 24 & July 2)

* July 3 to Aug. 11 (approx.) - "The Dog Days of Summer": Link 1 *** Link 2. (July 3 to Aug. 11)

* Fri., July 3 (1918) - Anniversary: Migratory Bird Treaty Act of 1918 (MBTA). (July 3)

* Fri., July 3 - Official Federal observance of Independence Day, traditionally celebrated with fireworks. [July 3 (U.S.A.: 1776 July 4)]

* Sat., July 4 (1776) - USA Independence Day, traditionally celebrated with fireworks. Link 1 *** Link 2. (U.S.A.: July 4)

* Sat., July 4 (1054) - Anniversary of observation of a "Guest Star" (i.e. supernova), which created what today is known as the Crab Nebula. Supernova SN 1054 was observed in China, Japan, Baghdad, and by the Anasazi Pueblo Peoples in New Mexico. This was the first recorded observation of a major astronomical event in North America. (July 4)

* Sat., July 4 (2012) - Anniversary: Public announcement at CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research) of the discovery of the Higgs Boson, an elementary particle in the Standard Model of particle physics. (July 4)

* Sat., July 4, 8:00 a.m. EDT / 12:00 UTC - Earth at aphelion, furthest point in orbit from the Sun: 94,507,634.78783841 statute miles / 152,095,295 kilometers. (Beginning of July)

* Sun., July 5 (1687) - Publication of Sir Isaac Newton's Principia, regarding gravitation. (July 5)

* Sun., July 5 - Global SUN-day. (July 5)

* Sun., July 5 - International Day of LGBTQ+ People in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (#LGBTSTEMDay). (July 5)

* Sun., July 5, 12:30:02.2 a.m. EDT / 4:30:02.2 UTC - Time of greatest eclipse for the Penumbral Lunar Eclipse / Penumbral Eclipse of the Moon, visible over most of the Western Hemisphere. This very dim eclipse will be visible in South America, most of North America (except Alaska, the northern-most sections of Canada, Iceland), southern tip of Greenland, most of Africa, Western Europe, Atlantic Ocean, and most of the Pacific Ocean.
A Penumbral Lunar Eclipse / Penumbral Eclipse of the Moon is very dim and difficult to distinguish, as it makes the Moon appear only slightly dimmer than a normal Full Moon.
More information: Link 1 *** Link 2 *** Link 3
All Lunar Eclipses / Eclipses of the Moon are the types of eclipses which are safe to view with the naked-eyes (one-power), binoculars, and telescopes.

* Sun., July 5, 12:44 a.m. EDT / 4:44 UTC - Primary Moon Phase: Full Moon - Buck Moon.

* Sun., July 5, 2:00 a.m. EDT / 6:00 UTC - Asteroid 4 Vesta in conjunction with the Sun (Vesta not visible, even with a telescope).

* Sun., July 5, 6:00 p.m. EDT / 22:00 UTC - Jupiter 1.9 degrees north of the Moon.

* Mon., July 6 (1867) - First wedding taking place in a balloon - Mr. J. W. Smithson, of Philadelphia, and Miss Maggie E. Fornshell, of Wooster, Ohio, were married in a balloon over Pittsburgh. (July 6)

* Mon., July 6, 5:00 a.m. EDT / 9:00 UTC - Saturn 2 degrees north of the Moon.

* Tue., July 7 - Beginning of the Japanese Star Festivals of Tanabata, which celebrates the meeting of the deities Orihime and Hikoboshi (represented by th e stars Vega and Altair respectively), which, according to legend, are kept separate by the Milky Way except once a year, on the seventh day of the seventh lunar month of the lunisolar calendar. (July 7)

* Tue., July 7 - Global Forgiveness Day. (July 7)

* Thur., July 9 - National Summer Learning Day. (2nd Thursday of July)

* Fri., July 10 (1856) - Anniversary: Birth of physicist and electrical engineer Nikola Tesla, who helped George Westinghouse in Pittsburgh perfect the Alternating Current form of Electricity: Link 1 *** Link 2. (July 10)
Also see: Tesla Coil.

* Fri., July 10, 4:00 a.m. EDT / 8:00 UTC - Venus Greatest Illuminated Extent (GIE): Venus reaches its brightest in the morning sky at an apparent visual magnitude of -4.7. Venus visible ~ 2 hours before local sunrise.

* Sat., July 11 - Venus at aphelion.

* Sat., July 11 (1767) - Anniversary: Birth of 6th U.S. President John Quincy Adams, America's Astronomy President. (July 11)

* Sat., July 11 - World Population Day. (United Nations: July 11)

* Sat., July 11 - All-American Pet Photo Day. (July 11)

* Sat., July 11, 4:00 p.m. EDT / 20:00 UTC - Mars 2.0 degrees north of the Moon.

* July 12 to 21, 8:00 to 10:00 p.m. Prevailing Local Time - CITIZEN SCIENCE - Annual Globe at Night campaign, to raise public awareness of the impact of light pollution by encouraging everyone everywhere to measure local levels of night sky brightness and contribute observations on-line to a world map. (Monthly)

* Sun., July 12, 3:00 a.m. EDT / 7:00 UTC - Venus 1.0 degree north of Star Aldebaran.

* Sun., July 12, 3:00 p.m. EDT / 19:00 UTC - Moon at apogee: 251,157.61453113653 statute miles / 404,199 kilometers.

* Sun., July 12, 7:29 p.m. EDT / 23:29 UTC - Primary Moon Phase: Last Quarter.

* Sun., July 12, 8:20 p.m. EDT / July 13, 0:20 UTC - Manhattan-Henge - View of Full Sun on the Manhattan, New York City, east--west street grid: Link 1 *** Link 2. (July 12)

* Sun., July 12, 10:00 p.m. EDT / July 13, 2:00 UTC - Asteroid 2 Pallas at opposition (Pallas visible ~ local sunset to local sunrise, weather-permitting).

* Mon., July 13, 8:21 p.m. EDT / July 14, 0:21 UTC - Manhattan-Henge - View of Half Sun on the Manhattan, New York City, east--west street grid: Link 1 *** Link 2. (July 13)

* Tue., July 14 (1965) - First close-up photographs taken of another planet: NASA fly-by spacecraft Mariner 4, which flew-by Mars. (July 14)

* Tue., July 14 - Tape Measure Day (July 14)

* Tue., July 14 (1789) - Bastille Day / French National Day, which celebrates the Storming of the Bastille in Paris at the beginning of the French Revolution. (July 14)

* Tue., July 14, 4:00 a.m. EDT / 8:00 UTC - Jupiter at opposition (Jupiter visible ~ local sunset to local sunrise, weather-permitting).

* Tue., July 14, 8:00 a.m. EDT / 12:00 UTC - Uranus 4 degrees north of the Moon.

* Tue., July 14, 4:51 p.m. EDT / 20:51 UTC - Scheduled launch of the United Arab Emirates' first Mars orbiter, the Hope Mars Mission, from the Tanegashima Space Center in Japan on a Japanese H-2A rocket. It was built by the Mohammed bin Rashid Space Centre, an Emirati space organization, as well as the University of Colorado Boulder, Arizona State University, and the University of California, Berkeley.
New Space Race to Mars? The United States (Mars 2020) and China (Tianwen-1) are also scheduled to send missions to Mars in July.

* Wed., July 15 - SPECIAL NOTE: DEADLINE FOR FEDERAL TAX RETURNS EXTENDED TO WEDNESDAY, 2020 JULY 15, DUE TO COVID-19 PANDEMIC EMERGENCY (Normal deadline is April 15) - Tax Day (USA) - Individual Federal tax returns due or postmarked by end of day. (April 15, unless delayed by a holiday)

* Wed., July 15 - St. Swithun's Day - According to tradition, the weather occurring on St. Swithun's Day will continue for forty days. This legend does have a scientific basis. At this time of year, for most years, the jet stream settles into a reasonably steady pattern until the end of August. (July 15)

* Wed., July 15 - Military Consumer Protection Day. (3rd Wednesday in July)

* Wed., July 15, 3:00 p.m. EDT / 19:00 UTC - Dwarf Planet Pluto at opposition (Pluto visible ~ local sunset to local sunrise, weather-permitting).

* Thur., July 16 (1958) - Both the U.S House of Representatives and the U.S. Senate approve the National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958 (Pub.L. 85–568). (July 16)

* Thur., July 16 (1945), 5:29:21 a.m. Mountain War Time (MWT) / 7:29:21 a.m. Eastern War Time / 11:29:21 UTC (+ 2 seconds or - 2 seconds) -
75th Anniversary: First test, at the Trinity Site in New Mexico, of the first atomic bomb. (July 16)
Also see: Female Astrophysicist Helped Build 1st Atomic Bomb

* Thur., July 16 (1969), 9:32 a.m. EDT / 13:32 UTC - Anniversary: Launch of Apollo 11, the first mission to land two humans on the surface of Earth's Moon. (July 16)

* Thur., July 16, 12:38 p.m. Hawaii - Aleutian Standard Time (HAST) / 6:38 p.m. EDT / 22:38 UTC - Time in Honolulu, the state capital of Hawaii, of twice-annual Lāhainā Noon, the time when the Sun appears at the Zenith in the sky [directly overhead--with no solar shadow visible (weather-permitting)] at Local Solar Noon; Lāhainā Noon can only occur in the Tropics, in locations between the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn on the world globe. (~May 27, ~July 16):
Link 1 *** Link 2.

* Fri., July 17 - World Emoji Day for computer / electronic communication. (July 17)

* Fri., July 17, 3:00 a.m. EDT / 7:00 UTC - Venus 3 degrees south of the Moon.

* July 18 to 26 - National Moth Week - CITIZEN SCIENCE project where citizen scientists can help map moth distribution and provide needed information on other life history aspects around the globe. (Last full week of July)

* Sun., July 19 - Dog Days of Summer: About 2200 years ago in Greece, date of the heliacal rising of Sirius; ancient mid-way point of "Dog Days of Summer": Link 1 *** Link 2. (July 19)

* Sun., July 19 - National Ice Cream Day. (3rd Sunday in July)

* Sun., July 19, 12:00 Midnight EDT / 4:00 UTC - Mercury 4 degrees south of the Moon.

* Mon., July 20 (1969) - "Moon Day" - Anniversary ---
** July 20, 4:17:40 p.m. EDT / 20:17:40 UTC - Moment the Lunar Excursion Module (LEM - code-named "Eagle") landed on the Moon with astronauts Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin.
** July 20, 10:56:20 p.m. EDT / July 21, 2:56:20 UTC - Moment the first human (Neil Armstrong) set foot on the Earth's Moon, during the NASA mission of Apollo 11: Link 1 *** Link 2. (July 20)
Special Note: Neil Armstrong was originally scheduled to first step on the Moon during the early morning hours of Monday ("Moonday"), July 21. Although this historic moment actually occurred earlier than scheduled, during the July 20 television prime-time in America, it actually did occur on "Moonday," July 21 at 2:56:20 Coordinated Universal Time (UTC), the time-scale used by many scientists.
Also see ---
** Launch of Apollo 11
** Personal remembrance of Apollo 11 mission
** American Lunar Society Founder on 50th Anniversary: 1st Humans Walk on Moon, KOKH’S QUESTION: After 50 Years, Why No Lunar Settlements ?

* Mon., July 20 - Space Exploration Day (July 20)

* Mon., July 20 (1976) - Anniversary: Landing of the NASA space probe, Viking 1, on the surface of Mars, the first U.S. spacecraft to safely land on the Red Planet: Link 1 *** Link 2. (July 20)
Also see: Special NASA radio reports to the public, regarding the Viking Mission to Mars.

* Mon., July 20, 1:33 p.m. EDT / 17:33 UTC - Primary Moon Phase: New Moon - Lunation # 1207.

* Mon., July 20, 6:00 p.m. EDT / 22:00 UTC - Saturn at opposition (Saturn visible ~ local sunset to local sunrise, weather-permitting).

* Wed., July 22 - Pi Approximation Day, a holiday commemorating the mathematical constant π (pi). (July 22: 22/7)

* Thur., July 23 - Scheduled launch of Chinese Tianwen-1 Mission, including rover, to the Planet Mars.
New Space Race to Mars? The United States plans on launching NASA's Mars 2020 Mission to Mars, including the Perseverance Rover, scheduled to launch on July 30; the United Arab Emirates plans on launching a Mars orbiter on July 14.

* Thur., July 23 - National Intern Day. (4th Thursday of July)

* Thur., July 23 - Hot Enough For Ya Day. (July 23)

* Fri., July 24 (1975) - End of "Space Race" between the United States and Russia (then known as the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics), which concluded with the Apollo (18) - Soyuz Test Project. (July 24)

* Fri., July 24 (1897) - Amelia Earhart Day, on the birthday of famous, pioneering female aviator Amelia Earhart. (July 24)

* Sat., July 25 - "The Day Out of Time," the last day and extra day of the 13-Moon (each Moon or month consisting of 28 days), 364-day Mayan and "Galactic" year calendar: Link 1 *** Link 2. (July 25)

* Sat., July 25, 1:00 a.m. EDT / 5:00 UTC - Moon at perigee: 228,888.9137437351 statute miles / 368,361 kilometers.

* Sun., July 26 - First day of the 13-Moon (each Moon or month consisting of 28 days), 364-day "Galactic" year calendar, used for more than 5500 years by several cultures including the Maya, Inca, Druid, Egyptian, Essene, and the peoples of Polynesia. (July 26)

* Sun., July 26 (1990) - 30th Anniversary: The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) signed into law by U.S. President George H.W. Bush: Link 1 *** Link 2 *** Link 3. (July 26)

* Sun., July 26 (1775) - United States Post Office established by decree of the Second Continental Congress, with Benjamin Franklin as first Postmaster General. (July 26)

* Sun., July 26 - Parents' Day. (4th Sunday of July)

* Mon., July 27 (1953) - Armistice ends fighting in United Nations police action in Korea. (July 27)

* Mon., July 27, 8:32 a.m. EDT / 12:32 UTC - Primary Moon Phase: First Quarter.

* Tue., July 28 - World Hepatitis Day. (July 28)

* Tue., July 28 (1914) - Commencement of World War I: Link 1 *** Link 2. (July 28)

* Tue., July 28, 6:00 p.m. EDT / 22:00 UTC (Best viewing: Midnight to Dawn) - Peak of S. Delta-Aquarid Meteor Shower. (July 27 to 29)

* Wed., July 29 - Annual Rain Day in Waynesburg, Pennsylvania, about 50 statute miles / 80.4672 kilometers south of Pittsburgh. (July 29)

* Wed., July 29 (1958) - Anniversary: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) established by U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower, absorbing the former National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA: established 1915 March 3) with its Special Committee on Space Technology (established 1958 January 12): Link 1 *** Link 2. (July 29)

* Thur., July 30 (1619) - First legislative assembly in America / New World convenes in Jamestown, Virginia. (July 30)

* Thur., July 30 - World Day against Trafficking in Persons. (July 30)

* Thur., July 30, 7:50 a.m. EDT / 11:50 UTC - Scheduled launch of NASA's Mars 2020 Mission, including the Perseverance Rover, scheduled to land in the Jezero crater on Mars on 2021 February 18.
More information: Link 1 *** Link 2
New Space Race to Mars? China plans on launching the Tianwen 1 Mission to Mars, including a rover, on July 23; the United Arab Emirates plans on launching a Mars orbiter on July 14.

* Fri., July 31 - Dog Days of Summer: Rising of Sirius (the "Dog Star") ahead of the Sun (however, Sirius not visible until, at least, Aug. 7, due to glare of the Sun). (July 31)

* July 31 & Dec. 2 - National Mutt Day (July 31 & Dec. 2)

* Fri., July 31 - Computer System Administrator Appreciation Day. (Last Friday in July)

* Sat., Aug. 1 - Astronomical Mid-Point of Summer - Traditional Astronomical Cross-Quarter Day, also known as “Lammas” (in the United Kingdom) and “Lughnassad” (in Ireland). Considered approximate date of First Harvest (third traditional cross-quarter day of the year), approximately between the Midsummer Solstice and the Autumnal Equinox (July 31 Eve to Aug. 1).
Actual Cross-Quarter Day.

* Thur., Aug. 6, 9:04 p.m. EDT / Aug. 7, 1:04 UTC - Astronomical Mid-Point of Summer - Actual Astronomical Cross-Quarter Day (halfway between the June Solstice and September Equinox: ~Aug. 6 to 7).
Traditional Cross-Quarter Day.

Astronomical Calendar: 2020 August
Monthly Observances This Month

2020: Year of the Nurse and the Midwife 2020

Meteor Showers: Perseids - peaks Aug. 11 to 13; AMONG BEST OF YEAR !
Aurigids - peaks Sept. 1.

Moon Phases:
Today *** Calendar Month

Planets, Stars, Sky Events:
Today *** This Week
Solar System *** Occultations
Constellations *** Star Chart

View International Space Station (ISS)
Rocket Launches This Month: Link 1 *** Link 2 *** Link 3 *** Link 4

Equinoxes (EQX), Solstices (SOLC), and Cross-Quarter (XQ) Days For This Year.
Chronological Cycles and Eras For This Year.
Dominical Letters: "E" & "D" - Used in a Perpetual Calendar. For This Leap Year.

Science Experiments Children & Teens Can Do At Home !

Astronomical Glossary
of Terms Used

Astronomical Calendar
Archives

Other
Astronomical Calendars: Link 1 * Link 2

10,000-Year Calendar

Rise & Set Times

Current Sky Events & Astro Phenomena

News: Astronomy, Space, Science --

Weekly: SpaceWatchtower Blog

Daily: SpaceWatchtower Twitter Feed

History of Pittsburgh's Original
Buhl Planetarium and Institute of Popular Science

Astronomy Links

Science Links


a.m. = Ante-Meridiem (Morning: Midnight to a moment before Noon)

p.m. = Post-Meridiem (Afternoon & Evening: a moment after Noon to a moment before Midnight of the next day)

EST = Eastern Standard Time *** EDT = Eastern Daylight Saving Time *** UTC = Coordinated Universal Time

SPECIAL NOTES:
(1) All astronomical or sky observations are always weather-permitting.
(2) For calendar entries which describe a relationship between two or more celestial objects, unless otherwise noted all relationships between celestial objects are visual relationships as seen from Earth only.


* May 15 to September 30 - Recreational Boating Season. (May 15 to Sept. 30)

* July 3 to Aug. 11 (approx.) - "The Dog Days of Summer": Link 1 *** Link 2. (July 3 to Aug. 11).

* Fri., July 31 - Dog Days of Summer: Rising of Sirius (the "Dog Star") ahead of the Sun (however, Sirius not visible until, at least, Aug. 7, due to glare of the Sun). (July 31)

* Aug. 1 to 7 - Noctilucent Clouds - wispy-type clouds that shine at night, as they form as ice crystals around dust particles in Earth's atmosphere at the edge of space. This is the last week to get a good view of Noctilucent Clouds, as the length of daylight is now getting shorter each day, since the Summer Solstice. (Aug. 1 to 7)

* Aug. 1 to 7 - World Breast-Feeding Week (WBW). (Aug. 1 to 7)

* Aug. 1 to 7 - National Minority Donor Awareness Week. (Aug. 1 to 7)

* Sat., Aug. 1 (1818) - Anniversary of the birth of America's first female, professional astronomer, Maria Mitchell, who won a gold medal prize presented by the King of Denmark, for her discovery of a comet named in her honor: Miss Mitchell's Comet. (Aug. 1)
Also see: 1st U.S. Female Professional Astronomer: Leading Women's Suffragist

* Sat., Aug. 1 - Astronomical Mid-Point of Summer - Traditional Astronomical Cross-Quarter Day, also known as “Lammas” (in the United Kingdom) and “Lughnassad” (in Ireland). Considered approximate date of First Harvest (third traditional cross-quarter day of the year), approximately between the Midsummer Solstice and the Autumnal Equinox. (July 31 Eve to Aug. 1)
Actual Cross-Quarter Day.

* Sat., Aug. 1 - Lemonade Day in Western Pennsylvania, to teach children entrepreneurship and business.

* Sat., Aug. 1, 7:34 p.m. EDT / 23:34 UTC - Scheduled: NASA SpaceX Demo Mission-2 Undocking from International Space Station (ISS). NASA astronauts Robert Behnken and Douglas Hurley begin their return to Earth on the SpaceX Crew Dragon. Splash-down scheduled Sunday afternoon. This will be the first splash-down of a crewed American spacecraft, since the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project on 1975 July 24.
Link 3
Historic SpaceX Astronaut Launch 2020 May 30: NASA SpaceX Crew Dragon Demo Mission-2
NASA-TV Video Coverage of Return Events, including Undocking from Space Station & Spash-down

* Sat., Aug. 1, 8:00 p.m. EDT / Aug. 2, 0:00 UTC - Jupiter 1.5 degrees north of the Moon.

* Aug. 2 to Aug. 8 - National Farmers Market Week. (First full week of August)

* Aug. 2 to Aug. 8 - National Stop on Red Week. (First full week of August)

* Sun., Aug. 2 (1955) - Space Race between the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (now known as the Russian Federation) began in earnest, when the Soviet Union responded to the US announcement four days earlier of intent to launch artificial satellites for the International Geophysical Year, by declaring they would also launch a satellite "in the near future." (Aug. 2)

* Sun., Aug. 2 - Friendship Day. (First Sunday in August)

* Sun., Aug. 2 - International Forgiveness Day. (1st Sunday in August)

* Sun., Aug. 2, 2:00 a.m. EDT / 6:00 UTC - Dwarf Planet Pluto 1.1 degrees north of the Moon: occultation: most of the eastern portion of Antarctica.

* Sun., Aug. 2, 9:00 a.m. EDT / 13:00 UTC - Saturn 2 degrees north of the Moon.

* Sun., Aug. 2, 2:48 p.m. EDT / 18:48 UTC - Scheduled: Splash-down (probably in Gulf of Mexico, due to hurricane in Atlantic Ocean) of NASA SpaceX Demo Mission-2, after undocking from the International Space Station (ISS) on Saturday evening. NASA astronauts Robert Behnken and Douglas Hurley will return to Earth on the SpaceX Crew Dragon. This will be the first splash-down of a crewed American spacecraft, since the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project on 1975 July 24.
More Information: Link 1 *** Link 2 *** Link 3
Historic SpaceX Astronaut Launch 2020 May 30: NASA SpaceX Crew Dragon Demo Mission-2
NASA-TV Video Coverage of Return Events, including Undocking from Space Station & Spash-down

* Mon., Aug. 3 - National Watermelon Day. (Aug. 3)

* Mon., Aug. 3 - Civic Holiday in certain Canadian provinces. (First Monday in August)

* Mon., Aug. 3 - Mars at perihelion.

* Mon., Aug. 3, 11:59 a.m. EDT / 15:59 UTC - Primary Moon Phase: Full Moon - Sturgeon Moon.

* Tue., Aug. 4, Evening - National Night Out. (First Tuesday in August)

* Thur., Aug. 6 - Mercury at perihelion.

* Thur., Aug. 6 - National Interview Day. (Aug. 6)

* Thur., Aug. 6 (1945), 8:15:43 a.m. Hiroshima Time (Japan Standard Time) / Aug. 5, 7:15:43 p.m. Eastern War Time / Aug. 5, 23:15:43 UTC -
75th Anniversary of the first war-time use of an Atomic Bomb over Hiroshima, Japan. (Aug. 6)
Also see: Female Astrophysicist Helped Build 1st Atomic Bomb

* Thur., Aug. 6, 9:04 p.m. EDT / Aug. 7, 1:04 UTC - Astronomical Mid-Point of Summer - Actual Astronomical Cross-Quarter Day (halfway between the June Solstice and September Equinox: ~Aug. 6 to 7).
Traditional Cross-Quarter Day.

* Aug. 7, 8, 9, weekend and September 4, 5, 6, weekend, 30 minutes before sunset - A Swift Night-Out - CITIZEN SCIENCE PROJECT to observe bird roosts of Chimney Swifts and Vaux's Swifts.
More on Citizen Science & Chimey Swifts. (Second Weekend August and September: Friday, Saturday, Sunday)

* Fri., Aug. 7 - National Lighthouse Day. (Aug. 7)

* Fri., Aug. 7 - Purple Heart Day. (Aug. 7)

* Sat., Aug. 8 - International Cat Day. (Aug. 8)

* Sat., Aug. 8 (1786) - US Congress adopts silver dollar & decimal system of money. (Aug. 8)

* Aug. 9 to 15, after Sunset - International Starlight Week. (Week coinciding with annual Perseid Meteor Shower)

* Aug. 9 to 15 - National Health Center Week. (Second full week of August)

* Sun., Aug. 9 - Book Lovers Day. (Aug. 9)

* Sun., Aug. 9 (1945) - 75th Anniversary: Second and last war-time use of an Atomic Bomb over Nagasaki, Japan. (Aug. 9)
Also see: Female Astrophysicist Helped Build 1st Atomic Bomb

* Sun., Aug. 9 (1944) - "Birthday": Smokey Bear - American campaign and advertising icon of the U.S. Forest Service for the Wildfire Prevention Campaign. (Aug. 9)

* Sun., Aug. 9 (1974) - Anniversary: First resignation of an American President. As a consequence of the Watergate Scandal, and prior to the U.S. House of Representatives approving three Articles of Impeachment of the President, the resignation of U.S. President Richard M. Nixon took effect at 12:00 Noon, after announcing his resignation on a nationally broadcast address the previous evening; recently appointed Vice President Gerald R. Ford, Jr. (who had been approved by the U.S. Senate for the appointment as Vice President after the resignation of Vice President Spiro T. Agnew) assumed the U.S. Presidency.
President Nixon's signature appears on the historic plaque left on the Moon at the site of the landing of the Lunar Excursion Module (LEM) of the Apollo 11 mission, where the first two humans set-foot on the Moon. President Nixon also spoke with NASA Astronauts Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin, while they were on the Moon, in a conversation President Nixon called "the most historic phone call ever made from the White House." (Aug. 9)

* Sun., Aug. 9, 4:00 a.m. EDT / 8:00 UTC - Mars 0.8 degree north of the Moon; occultation: most of the western portion of Antarctica, southeastern portion of South America, Ascension Island (British Overseas Territory of Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha in South Atlantic Ocean).

* Sun., Aug. 9, 10:00 a.m. EDT / 14:00 UTC - Moon at apogee: 251,443.4452795657 statute miles / 404,659 kilometers.

* Aug. 10 to 19, 8:00 to 10:00 p.m. Prevailing Local Time - CITIZEN SCIENCE - Annual Globe at Night campaign, to raise public awareness of the impact of light pollution by encouraging everyone everywhere to measure local levels of night sky brightness and contribute observations on-line to a world map. (Monthly)

* Mon., Aug. 10 (1846) - Founding of the Smithsonian Institution in Washington DC, originally from the bequest of British chemist James Smithson. The founding was spearheaded by Massachusetts Congressman and former U.S. President John Quincy Adams. (Aug. 10)
Samuel Pierpont Langley, second Director of Pittsburgh's Allegheny Observatory, became the third Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, then considered the greatest scientific appointment in the nation.

* Mon., Aug. 10, after Sunset - International Starry Night. (Aug. 10 - just before peak of annual Perseid Meteor Shower)

* Mon., Aug. 10 - World Lion Day. (Aug. 10)

* Mon., Aug. 10, 5:00 p.m. EDT / 21:00 UTC - Uranus 4 degrees north of the Moon.

* Tue., Aug. 11 - For +40 degrees North Latitude (Latitude of Pittsburgh), annual Heliacal Rising of the Star Sirius (Dog Star), the brightest star in the night sky, the first time Sirius can be seen in the morning sky for the year. In ancient times, the Heliacal Rising of Sirius coincided with the flooding of the Nile River, which was and still is Egypt's life-line; the Heliacal Rising of Procyon (Little Dog Star), which annually occurred a little ahead of the Heliacal Rising of Sirius, gave the ancients extra warning for the soon-Heliacal Rising of Sirius. At that time, it was thought that the heat from the brightest star (Sirius), rising near the same time as the rising of the Sun, contributed to the great heat of the Summer Season. (Aug. 11)

* Tue., Aug. 11 (1919) - Anniversary: Death of industrialist and philanthropist Andrew Carnegie, who helped build 2,509 public libraries, Allegheny Observatory, 11-inch Brashear Refractor Telescope for original Carnegie Institute of Technology observatory, Mount Wilson Observatory, Carnegie Institution of Science, Carnegie Technical Schools (now Carnegie Mellon University), Carnegie Museum of Natural History (including Dinosaur Hall, which Andrew Carnegie funded and promoted). (Aug. 11)

* Tue., Aug. 11 - Public Housing Health Centers Day. (Tuesday of National Health Center Week)

* Tue., Aug. 11, 12:45 p.m. EDT / 16:45 UTC - Primary Moon Phase: Last Quarter.

* Wed., Aug. 12 - World Elephant Day. (Aug. 12)

* Wed., Aug. 12 - International Youth Day. (Aug. 12)

* Wed., Aug. 12 - Middle Child's Day. (Aug. 12)

* Wed., Aug. 12 - Health Care for the Homeless Day. (Wednesday of National Health Center Week)

* Wed., Aug. 12, 9:00 a.m. EDT / 13:00 UTC (Best viewing: Aug. 11, 12, & 13, Midnight to Dawn) - Peak of Perseid Meteor Shower, considered one of the best of the year! (Aug. 11 to 13).
Also see: NASA: Perseid Meteor Shower Has Most Fireballs.

* Thur., Aug. 13 - International Lefthanders Day. (Aug. 13)

* Thur., Aug. 13 - Farmworker Health Day. (Thursday of National Health Center Week)

* Aug. 14 to 16 - Pledge to Fledge ! campaign for birders to share their love and information about the birding hobby with others. (Third weekend in August)

* Sat., Aug. 15 (1877) - Anniversary of Establishment of Telephone Greeting "Hello" - In preparation for introduction of the telephone in the city of Pittsburgh, in an unpublished letter from Thomas A. Edison to T.B.A. David, President of Pittsburgh's Central District and Printing Telegraph Company, Mr. Edison suggested "I don't think we shall need a call bell as Hello! can be heard 10 to 20 feet away." (Aug. 15)

* Sat., Aug. 15 (1945) - Anniversary of the announcement of the surrender of Japan and end of World War II (Aug. 15).
Victory Over Japan Day (United Kingdom) - Day of initial announcement of Japan surrender ending World War II. (Aug. 15)
Celebrated on September 2 in USA, for formal surrender on Battleship USS Missouri.

* Sat., Aug.15 - World Honey Bee Day. (3rd Saturday in August)

* Sat., Aug.15 - Clear the (Animal) Shelters Day. (3rd Saturday in August)

* Sat., Aug. 15 - Relaxation Day. (Aug. 15)

* Sat., Aug. 15, 12:08 a.m. EDT 4:08 UTC - Double-shadow (shadows of 2 Galilean Moons) transit on Jupiter; visible, with difficulty, through telescope after sunset or before sunrise.

* Sat., Aug. 15, 5:39 a.m. EDT / 9:39 UTC - Dog Days of Summer: First visible (Sirius rises ahead of Sun at 7 degrees altitude) Heliacal rising of Sirius; modern mid-way point in "The Dog Days of Summer". (~ Aug. 7 to 15)

* Sat., Aug. 15, 9:00 a.m. EDT 13:00 UTC - Venus 4 degrees south of the Moon.

* Sun., Aug. 16 - Rollercoaster Day. (Aug. 16)

* Mon., Aug. 17 - Black Cat Appreciation Day. (Aug. 17)

* Mon., Aug. 17 - National Thriftshop Day. (Aug. 17)

* Mon., Aug. 17, 11:00 a.m. EDT 15:00 UTC - Mercury in superior conjunction with the Sun (Mercury not visible, even with a telescope).

* Mon., Aug. 17, 2:00 p.m. EDT 18:00 UTC - Moon 1.7 degrees north of Beehive Open Star Cluster (M44).

* Tue., Aug.18 - Serendipity Day. (Aug. 18)

* Tue., Aug.18, 10:42 p.m. EDT Aug. 19, 2:42 UTC - Primary Moon Phase: New Moon - Lunation #1208.

* Wed., Aug. 19 (1871) - National Aviation Day, anniversary of the 1871 birth of Orville Wright, who with brother Wilbur, is credited with the first powered flight of a man. (Aug. 19)

* Wed., Aug. 19 (1839) - World Photography Day - Anniversary of the release of the first practical photographic process patent. (Aug. 19)

* Wed., Aug. 19 - World Humanitarian Day. (Aug. 19)

* Thur., Aug. 20 (1920) - Centennial: National Radio Day. (Aug. 20)
This was the day, in 1920, when The Detroit News-owned amateur radio station 8MK began regular broadcasting; today, this station is all-news WWJ-AM 950. (Aug. 20)

* Thur., Aug. 20 (1619) - Beginning of slavery in North America with the first African slaves arriving in Jamestown, Virginia. (Aug. 20)

* Fri., Aug. 21, 7:00 a.m. EDT 11:00 UTC - Moon at perigee: 225,876.5 statute miles / 363,513 kilometers.

* Sat., Aug. 22, 2:32 a.m. EDT / 6:32 UTC - Double-shadow (shadows of 2 Galilean Moons) transit on Jupiter; visible, with difficulty, through telescope after sunset or before sunrise.

* Aug. 23 to 29 - National Book Week Australia. (Last week of August)

* Sun., Aug. 23 (1991) - Internaut Day - Anniversary, in 1991, of the Internet's World Wide Web (www). (Aug. 23)

* Sun., Aug. 23 - Health Unit Coordinator Day. (Aug. 23)

* Sun., Aug. 23 - International Day for the Remembrance of the Slave Trade and its Abolition. (Aug. 23)

* Sat., Aug. 24 (A.D. 79) - Historic eruption of Mount Vesuvius, in what is now Italy, which resulted in the destruction and burying of Pompeii and Herculaneum, among other settlements. (Aug. 24)

* Aug. 25 to 31 - Black Breast-Feeding Week. (Aug. 25 to 31)

* Tue., Aug. 25 - World Doctorates Day. (Aug. 25)

* Tue., Aug. 25 (1916) - Anniversary (1916: Centennial): Establishment of the United States Department of the Interior's National Park Service. (Aug. 25)

* Tue., Aug. 25 - National Kiss and Make-Up Day. (Aug. 25)

* Tue., Aug. 25, 1:58 p.m. EDT 17:58 UTC - Primary Moon Phase: First Quarter.

* Wed., Aug. 26 (1920) - Centennial Anniversary: Women's Equality Day - Certification of 19th Amendment to the United States Constitution, granting women the right to vote. (Aug. 26)

* Wed., Aug. 26 - National Dog Day & International Dog Day. (Aug. 26)

* Thur., Aug. 27 (1883) - Historic eruption of the Krakatoa Volcano in the Dutch East Indies (now Indonesia). (Aug. 27)
Loudest sound heard by man, in recorded history.

* Thur., Aug. 27 - Global Forgiveness Day. (Aug. 27)

* Fri., Aug. 28 (1912) - Anniversary: New Allegheny Observatory building dedicated. (Aug. 28)

* Fri., Aug. 28, 8:00 a.m. EDT / 12:00 UTC - Asteroid 1 Ceres at opposition (Ceres visible approx. local sunset to local sunrise, weather-permitting).

* Fri., Aug. 28, 10:00 p.m. EDT / Aug. 29, 2:00 UTC - Jupiter 1.4 degrees north of the Moon.

* Sat., Aug. 29, 7:00 a.m. EDT / 11:00 UTC - Dwarf Planet Pluto 1.2 degrees north of the Moon; occultation: most of western Antarctica, Queen Maud Land (Antarctic territory claimed by Norway).

* Sat., Aug. 29, 1:00 p.m. EDT / 17:00 UTC - Saturn 2 degrees north of the Moon.

* Sun., Aug. 30 (1955) - De-facto beginning date of the "Space Race" between the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (now known as the Russian Federation) - when the Soviet Academy of Sciences created a commission whose purpose was to beat the Americans into Earth orbit.. (Aug. 30)

* Sun., Aug. 30 - Grief Awareness Day. (Aug. 30)

* Sun., Aug. 30 - International Day of the Disappeared. (Aug. 30)

* Mon., Aug. 31 - International Overdose Awareness Day (IOAD). (Aug. 31)

* Mon., Aug. 31 (1991), 5:00 p.m. EDT / 21:00 UTC - Anniversary of the closing of The Buhl Planetarium and Institute of Popular Science (a.k.a. original Buhl Science Center) as a public museum in Pittsburgh, which was dedicated as America's fifth major planetarium on 1939 October 24. (Aug. 31)

* Tue., Sept. 1 (Best viewing: Midnight to Dawn) - Peak of Aurigid Meteor Shower. (Sept. 1)

Astronomical Calendar: 2020 September
Monthly Observances This Month

2020: Year of the Nurse and the Midwife 2020

Sept. 22-23 - Autumnal Equinox: Autumn Begins

Meteor Shower -- Aurigids: peaks Sept. 1.

WHY LEAVES
CHANGE COLOR

Autumn Foliage Reports --
Foliage Network Reports
Weather Ch. Viewing Maps
National Forests
New England
PA * WV * OH * MD

Moon Phases:
Today *** Calendar Month

Planets, Stars, Sky Events:
Today *** This Week
Solar System *** Occultations
Constellations *** Star Chart

View International Space Station (ISS)
Rocket Launches This Month: Link 1 *** Link 2 *** Link 3 *** Link 4

Equinoxes (EQX), Solstices (SOLC), and Cross-Quarter (XQ) Days For This Year.
Chronological Cycles and Eras For This Year.
Dominical Letters: "E" & "D" - Used in a Perpetual Calendar. For This Leap Year.

Astronomical Glossary
of Terms Used

Astronomical Calendar
Archives

Other
Astronomical Calendars: Link 1 * Link 2

10,000-Year Calendar

Rise & Set Times

Current Sky Events & Astro Phenomena

News: Astronomy, Space, Science --

Weekly: SpaceWatchtower Blog

Daily: SpaceWatchtower Twitter Feed

History of Pittsburgh's Original
Buhl Planetarium and Institute of Popular Science

Astronomy Links

Science Links


a.m. = Ante-Meridiem (Morning: Midnight to a moment before Noon)

p.m. = Post-Meridiem (Afternoon & Evening: a moment after Noon to a moment before Midnight of the next day)

EST = Eastern Standard Time *** EDT = Eastern Daylight Saving Time *** UTC = Coordinated Universal Time

SPECIAL NOTES:
(1) All astronomical or sky observations are always weather-permitting.
(2) For calendar entries which describe a relationship between two or more celestial objects, unless otherwise noted all relationships between celestial objects are visual relationships as seen from Earth only.


* May 15 to September 30 - Recreational Boating Season. (May 15 to Sept. 30)

* Sept. 1 to 30, Each Evening - Vaux’s Swifts Watch at Chapman School, Portland, Oregon - Public can view a spectacular display of Vaux’s Swift birds as they gather to roost in the school’s chimney. Volunteers from Portland Audubon will be present each night with information about the swifts, binoculars and a spotting scope for viewing. (Sept. 1 to 30)

* Sept. 1 to 2 (1859) - Anniversary: Carrington Event - Major Solar Storm of 1859 - English Amateur Astronomer Richard C. Carrington observed a Solar Flare, which is associated with a major Coronal Mass Ejection (CME) which caused the Carrington Event, just before 12:00 Noon on 1859 September 1. This was one of the first known geomagnetic storms to have major affects on Earth, 1859 September 1 to 2, including great auroral displays and caused severe disruptions with electrical telegraph systems (some telegraph systems actually caught fire). Such a solar storm today could bring down electrical grids (which did happen in Quebec in March of 1989), severely disrupt radio communications, and destroy the electronics in satellites. In fact, a Carrington-Class Solar Super Storm did occur on the Sun on 2012 July 23, although the CME missed the Earth. (Sept. 1 to 2)

* Tue., Sept. 1 - Beginning of Meteorological Season of Autumn in the Northern Hemisphere (Sept. 1) .

* Tue., Sept. 1 - Beginning of Spring Season in Australia. (Sept. 1)

* Tue., Sept. 1 - . Mid-point in Atlantic Ocean Hurricane Season. (Sept. 1)

* Tue., Sept. 1 (1914) - Anniversary: Passing of Martha in the Cincinnati Zoo, the last Passenger Pigeon, marking the extinction of the species, due to hunting and habitat destruction. Also see Project Passenger Pigeon. (Sept. 1)

* Tue., Sept. 1 (1939) - Anniversary: Beginning of World War II. (Sept. 1)

* Tue., Sept. 1 (2017) - Anniversary: Asteroid 3122 Florence (named in honor of Florence Nightingale, the founder of modern nursing) passes within 4.4 million miles / 7 million kilometers of Earth (18 times the distance between the Earth and the Moon). The largest asteroid to pass Earth since NASA started tracking asteroids, this asteroid measures 2.7 miles in diameter. (Sept. 1)

* Tue., Sept. 1 (Best viewing: Midnight to Dawn) - Peak of Aurigid Meteor Shower. (Sept. 1)

* Sept. 2 to 14 (1752) - Anniversary: Adoption, by the British Empire including the American Colonies, of the Gregorian Calendar Reform: the Julian Calendar day of Wednesday, 1752 September 2 O.S. (Old System) was followed by the first day of the Gregorian Calendar, Thursday, 1752 September 14 N.S. (New System). The original Gregorian Calendar Reform occurred when Thursday,1582 October 4 O.S. was followed by Friday, 1582 October 15 N.S.. Gregorian Calendar enacted by the Roman Catholic Church to bring the calendar back into synchronization with the seasons. (Sept. 2 to 14)

* Wed., Sept. 2 (1945) - Anniversary: Victory Over Japan Day / V-J Day (USA) - Day Japan formally surrendered, on Battleship USS Missouri, ending World War II. (Sept. 2)
Celebrated on August 15 in the United Kingdom, for initial announcement of Japan's surrender. (Sept. 2)

* Wed., Sept. 2 (1969) - Anniversary: Public debut of first Automated Teller Machine (ATM) at Chemical Bank in Rockville Center, New York. (Sept. 2)

* Wed., Sept. 2, 1:22 a.m. EDT / 5:22 UTC - Primary Moon Phase: Full Moon - Corn Moon.

* Thur., Sept. 3 (1783) - Anniversary of the signing of the Treaty of Paris, which formally ended St. Augustine, Floridathe American Revolutionary War. (Sept. 3)

* Fri., Sept. 4 (1882) - First practical, outdoor electric lighting: Thomas Elva Edison's Direct Current (DC) system in New York City. (Sept. 4)

* Fri., Sept. 4 - Newspaper Carrier Day. (Sept. 4)

* Sat., Sept. 5 - International Vulture Awareness Day - Highlights an ecologically vital group of birds that face a range of threats, including possible extinction for certain species. (First Saturday in September)

* Sept. 6 to 12 - Suicide Prevention Week. (2nd week of Sept., including Sept. 10 Suicide Prevention Week)

* Sun., Sept. 6 - National Read A Book Day. (Sept. 6)

* Sun., Sept. 6, 1:00 a.m. EDT / 5:00 UTC - Mars 0.03 degree south of the Moon; occultation: South America (northeastern & central portions), Cape Verde, northern Africa, southern Europe.

* Sun., Sept. 6, 2:00 a.m. EDT / 6:00 UTC - Moon at apogee: 252,032.50516980668 statute miles / 405,607 kilometers.

* Sun., Sept. 6 (1966), 7:30 p.m. EDT / 23:30 UTC - Anniversary: World premiere [U.S. premiere on Sept. 8 (1966)] of influential, science-fiction television series, Star Trek, on the CTV television network in Canada. (Sept. 6)

* Sept. 7 to 11 - National Payroll Week. (First business week of September, beginning on Labor Day)

* Mon., Sept. 7 - Labor Day. (Federal Holiday: U.S.A. - First Monday in September)

* Mon., Sept. 7, 12:00 Midnight EDT / 4:00 UTC - Uranus 3 degrees north of the Moon.

* Tue., Sept. 8 - International Literacy Day. (Sept. 8)

* Tue., Sept. 8 (1565) - Founding of the oldest, continuously-occupied settlement in the continental United States: St. Augustine, Florida. (Sept. 8)

* Tue., Sept. 8 (1966), 8:30 p.m. EDT / Sept. 9 (1966), 0:30 UTC - Anniversary of U.S. premiere [world premiere on Sept. 6 (1966)] of influential, science-fiction television series, Star Trek, on the NBC television network. (Sept. 8)

* Sept. 9 to 18, 8:00 to 10:00 p.m. Prevailing Local Time - CITIZEN SCIENCE - Annual Globe at Night campaign, to raise public awareness of the impact of light pollution by encouraging everyone everywhere to measure local levels of night sky brightness and contribute observations on-line to a world map.

* Thur., Sept. 10 - Traditional peak in Atlantic Ocean Hurricane Season. (Sept. 10)

* Thur., Sept. 10 - Swap Ideas Day. (Sept. 10)

* Thur., Sept. 10 - Suicide Prevention Day. (Sept. 10)

* Thur., Sept. 10 - National TV Dinner Day. (Sept. 10)

* Thur., Sept. 10, 5:26 a.m. EDT / 9:26 UTC - Primary Moon Phase: Last Quarter.

* Aug. 7, 8, 9 weekend and September 11, 12, 13 weekend, 30 minutes before sunset - A Swift Night-Out - CITIZEN SCIENCE PROJECT to observe bird roosts of Chimney Swifts and Vaux's Swifts.
More on Citizen Science & Chimey Swifts. (Second Weekend August and September: Friday, Saturday, Sunday)

* Fri., Sept. 11 (2001) - Patriot Day - In commemoration of the 9/11 attacks in New York, Washington, and Shanksville, Pennsylvania (79 miles southeast of Pittsburgh) in 2001. (Sept. 11)
Also 9 / 11 National Day of Service. (Sept. 11)

* Fri., Sept. 11, 9:00 a.m. EDT / 13:00 UTC - Moon 0.3 degree south of Open Star Cluster M35.

* Fri., Sept. 11, 4:00 p.m. EDT / 20:00 UTC - Neptune at opposition (Neptune visible approx. local sunset to local sunrise, weather-permitting).

* Sat., Sept. 12 (1962) - U.S. President John F. Kennedy addressed 35,000 people in a football stadium at Rice University in Houston, saying in part:
"We choose to go to the Moon! ...We choose to go to the Moon in this decade and do the other things, not because they are easy, but because they are hard; because that goal will serve to organize and measure the best of our energies and skills, because that challenge is one that we are willing to accept, one we are unwilling to postpone, and one we intend to win ..." (Sept. 12)

* Sat., Sept. 12 (1958) - Anniversary: Invention of computer Integrated Circuit. (September 12)

* Sat., Sept. 12 - World First Aid Day. (Second Saturday in September)

* Sept. 13 to 19 - International Book Week. (Third week of September)

* Sept. 13 to 19 - Child Passenger Safety Week (Third week of September).

* Sept. 13 to 19 - National Heroin and Opioid Awareness Week. (Third week of September)

* Sept. 13 to 19 - National Wellness Week. (Third week of September)

* Sept. 13 to 19 - National Assisted Living Week. (Third week of September)

* Sun., Sept. 13 - Solar Sidewalk Sun-Day - Annual Sidewalk Astronomers public solar observing event, scheduled each year on the Sunday closest to John Dobson's birthday: Sept. 14. (Sunday closest to Sept. 14)

* Sun., Sept. 13 - Grandparents Day. (First Sunday after Labor Day)

* Sun., Sept. 13 (1926) - Anniversary: Establishment of the NBC Radio Network (designated as the NBC Red Network), the first major national radio network. (Sept. 13)

* Mon., Sept. 14 (1814) - Anniversary: Song, The Star Spangled Banner, which became America's National Anthem in 1931. (Sept.14)

* Mon., Sept. 14, 1:00 a.m. EDT / 5:00 UTC - Venus 4 degrees south of the Moon.

* Mon., Sept. 14, 2:57 a.m. EDT / 6:57 UTC - Double-shadow (shadows of 2 Galilean Moons) transit on Jupiter; visible, with difficulty, through telescope after sunset or before sunrise, weather-permitting.

* Sept. 15 to 29 - Zodiacal Light dimly visible in northern lattitudes in eastern sky, before morning twilight, for next two weeks. (September, October)

* Sept. 15, 16, 17 - National Postal Customer Council Week. (Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday of third week of September)

* Tue., Sept. 15 - Happy Engineers Day. (Sept. 15)

* Tue., Sept. 15 - National Tell a Police Officer "Thank You!" Day. (Sept. 15)

* Wed., Sept. 16 - World Ozone Day. (Sept. 16)

* Sept. 17 to 23 - Constitution Week promotes study and education about the U.S. Constitution which was originally adopted by the American Congress of the Confederation on September 17, 1787. (Sept. 17 to 23)

* Thur., Sept. 17 - Constitution Day / Citizenship Day - Commemorates the day of signing of the U.S. Constitution at the Constitutional Convention in 1787. (Sept. 17)

* Thur., Sept. 17, 7:00 a.m. EDT / 11:00 UTC - Primary Moon Phase: New Moon - Lunation # 1209.

* Fri., Sept. 18 - National POW / MIA Recognition Day. (Third Friday in September)

* Fri., Sept. 18 - Park(ing) Day is an annual worldwide event where artists, designers and citizens transform metered parking spots into temporary public parks. (Third Friday in September)

* Fri., Sept. 18 - Bamboo Day. (Sept. 18)

* Fri., Sept. 18 (1927) - Anniversary: Establishment of the CBS Radio Network, the third national radio network (after the NBC Blue and Red networks), which became prominently known for news broadcasting beginning in World War II. (Sept. 18)

* Fri., Sept. 18 (1947) - Formation of the United States Air Force, as part of the National Security Act of 1947, which also included formation of the Department of Defense (DOD), Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), National Security Council, and the Joint Chiefs of Staff. (Sept. 18)

* Fri., Sept. 18, 10:00 a.m. EDT / 14:00 UTC - Moon at perigee: 223,123.21045096492 statute miles / 359,082 kilometers.

* Sept. 18, Sunset (Sunset in Pittsburgh: 7:23 p.m. EDT / 23:23 UTC) to Sept. 20, Sunset (Sunset in Pittsburgh: 7:20 p.m. EDT / 23:20 UTC) - Rosh Hashanah - Jewish New Year: Link 1 *** Link 2.
Days in the Hebrew calendar begin at sunset. Although the Jewish calendar is based on the Lunar Cycle, so that the first day of each month originally began with the first sighting of a New Moon, since the Fourth Century it has been arranged so that Rosh Hashanah never falls on a Sunday, Wednesday, or Friday (although, by the Gregorian Calendar, it may look like the holiday begins on a Sunday, Wednesday, or Friday, by the Hebrew Calendar the next day actually begins at sunset).

* Sat., Sept. 19 - National Seat Check Saturday regarding automobile seats for children. (Saturday of Child Passenger Safety Week)

* Sat., Sept. 19 - Software Freedom Day. (Third Saturday in September)

* Sat., Sept. 19 - 'No Text on Board' Pledge Day (TXTNG & DRIVNG...IT CAN WAIT). (Sept. 19)

* Sept. 20 to 26 - National Adult Education & Family Literacy Week. (Last week of September)

* Sat., Sept. 19 - Mercury at aphelion.

* Sept. 20 to 26 - Sea Otter Awareness Week. (Last full week in September)

* Sept. 20 to 26 - Rail Safety Week. (Last full week of September)

* Sept. 21 to 27 - Diaper Need Awareness Week. (Last week of September)

* Sept. 21 to 27 (1990) - Anniversary: Enactment of the Pollution Prevention Act of 1990 - Pollution Prevention Week. (Third full week of September, beginning on Monday)

* Mon., Sept. 21 - World Alzheimer's Day. (Sept. 21)

* Mon., Sept. 21 - International Day of Peace (including International Global Minute of Peace). (Sept. 21)

* Mon., Sept. 21 - World Gratitude Day. (Sept. 21)

* Mon., Sept. 21 (1965) - Anniversary: Commencement by KYW-AM 1060, Philadelphia, of, what is now, the second oldest continuously operating all-news radio station in the United States: Link 1 *** Link 2 (Sept. 21)

* Tue., Sept. 22 - World Car-Free Day. (Sept. 22)

* Tue., Sept. 22 - National Voter Registration Day. (Fourth Tuesday in September)

* Tue., Sept. 22 - Hobbit Day - Birthday of the hobbits Bilbo and Frodo Baggins, two fictional characters in J. R. R. Tolkien's popular set of books The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings. (Sept. 22)

* Tue., Sept. 22, 5:00 a.m. EDT / 9:00 UTC - Mercury 0.3 degree north of Star Spica.

* Tue., Sept. 22 - Falls Prevention Awareness Day. (First day of Fall: ~Sept. 22-23)

* Tue., Sept. 22, 9:31 a.m. EDT / 13:31 UTC - Autumnal Equinox; beginning of Season of Autumn in the Northern Hemisphere.
Also see: Harvest Moon.

* Wed., Sept. 23 (1846) - Discovery: Planet Neptune, first planet discovered by mathematical prediction. (Sept. 23)

* Wed., Sept. 23, 9:55 p.m. EDT / Sept., 24, 1:55 UTC - Primary Moon Phase: First Quarter.

* March 19 to April 30, September 24 through November 5 - Tsunami Preparedness Weeks. (mid-March through April, mid-September through early November)

* Thur., Sept. 24 - National Punctuation Day. (Sept. 24)

* Fri., Sept. 25 (1676) - Greenwich Mean Time (GMT), forerunner of today's Coordinated Universal Time (UTC), first established. (Sept. 25)

* Fri., Sept. 25 - Equilux - The actual day with equal hours and minutes of the Sun above the horizon, and equal hours and minutes of the Sun below the horizon. Occurs twice each year, approximately 3-to-4 days before the Vernal Equinox and 3-to-4 days after the Autumnal Equinox. (March 16, September 25)

* Fri., Sept. 25 - National Day of Remembrance for Murder Victims. (Sept. 25)

* Fri., Sept. 25 - National Daughters Day (Sept. 25)

* Fri., Sept. 25 - World School Milk Day. (Sept. 25)

* Fri., Sept. 25 - Better Breakfast Day. (Sept. 25)

* Fri., Sept. 25 - See-Say Day: “If You See Something, Say Something®” Awareness Day. (Sept. 25)

* Fri., Sept. 25, 3:00 a.m. EDT / 7:00 UTC - Jupiter 1.6 degrees north of the Moon.

* Fri., Sept. 25, 5:00 p.m. EDT / 21:00 UTC - Saturn 2 degrees north of the Moon.

* Sept. 26 to Oct. 4 - National Drive Electric Week. (Week of September and / or October, including the whole weekends on both ends of the week)

* Sat., Sept. 26 - Museum Day Live! - Free admission to participating museums, with Museum Day ticket from the Smithsonian Magazine web site. (4th Sat. in Sept.)

* Sat., Sept. 26 - World Maritime Day. (Last Thursday in September)
The original Buhl Planetarium and Institute of Popular Science (a.k.a. Buhl Science Center, Pittsburgh's science and technology museum from 1939 to 1991) displayed the largest Mercator's Projection Map of the World, originally produced by the U.S. Maritime Commission for display at the 1939 World's Fair in New York City.

* Sat., Sept. 26 (1774) - Birth of pioneer nurseryman and conservationist W Johnny Appleseed, who in his early years lived on Grant's Hill (near the present-day site of the 64-story U.S. Steel Building) in Downtown Pittsburgh. (Sept. 26)

* Sat., Sept. 26 - National Public Lands Day. (Last Sat. in Sept.)

* Sat., Sept. 26 - National Poetry Day (United Kingdom). (Thur. in late Sept., early Oct.)

* Sept. 27 to Oct. 3 - Banned Books Week (BBW) - An annual event celebrating the freedom to read and the importance of the First Amendment. (Last week of September)

* Sun., Sept. 27 - World Heart Day. (Last Sun. in Sept.)

* Sun., Sept. 27 - Gold Star Mother's Day. (Last Sun. in Sept.)

* Mon., Sept. 28 - The Right to Know Day. (Sept. 28)

* Mon., Sept. 28 - World Rabies Day, marked on the anniversary of the death of Louis Pasteur. (Sept. 28)

* Mon., Sept. 28 - World Daughters Day (Sept. 28)

* Tue., Sept. 29 (1915) - First transcontinental radio-telephone demonstration, with U.S. Navy radio stations at Arlington, Virginia, Mare Island in San Francisco, and Honolulu. (Sept. 29)

* Tue., Sept. 29, 9:00 to 10:30 p.m. EDT / Sept. 30, 1:00 to 2:30 UTC - First 2020 U.S. Presidential Debate to be heard and seen on several radio (Including - Networks: ABC, CBS. NPR) and television (Including - Networks: ABC, CBS, FOX, NBC, PBS; Cable News Channels: C-SPAN, CNN, FOX News, MSNBC) networks, in addition to the World Wide Web of the Internet. Debaters: Former U.S. Vice President and former U.S. Senator Joe Biden (Democratic Party Nominee): businessman, real estate tycoon, and incumbant U.S. President Donald J. Trump (Republican Party Nominee). (Late September of U.S. Presidential Election Years) Other 2020 Presidential Debates on Oct. 15 & 22; 2020 Vice Presidential Debate on Oct. 7.

* May 15 to September 30 - Recreational Boating Season. (May 15 to Sept. 30)

* April 30, Sept. 30 - National PrepareAthon ! Day - Day to emphasize preparation for disasters and emergencies. (April 30, Sept. 30)

* Wed., Sept. 30 - Last day of U.S.A. Federal Fiscal Year. (Sept. 30)

* Wed., Sept. 30 - Last day of calendar year Third Quarter. (Sept. 30)

* Wed., Sept. 30 (1452) - Anniversary of the first publication of the Gutenberg Bible, the first major book published using movable type in the Western World. (Sept. 30)

* Wed., Sept. 30 - International Podcast Day™. (September 30)

Astronomical Calendar: 2020 October
Monthly Observances This Month

2020: Year of the Nurse and the Midwife 2020

Meteor Showers:
Draconid peaks Oct. 7 to 8.
Orionid peaks Oct. 21.

WHY LEAVES
CHANGE COLOR

Autumn Foliage Reports --
Foliage Network Reports
Weather Ch. Viewing Maps
National Forests
New England
PA * WV * OH * MD

Moon Phases:
Today *** Calendar Month

Planets, Stars, Sky Events:
Today *** This Week
Solar System *** Occultations
Constellations *** Star Chart

View International Space Station (ISS)
Rocket Launches This Month: Link 1 *** Link 2 *** Link 3 *** Link 4

Equinoxes (EQX), Solstices (SOLC), and Cross-Quarter (XQ) Days For This Year.
Chronological Cycles and Eras For This Year.
Dominical Letters: "E" & "D" - Used in a Perpetual Calendar. For This Leap Year.

Astronomical Glossary
of Terms Used

Astronomical Calendar
Archives

Other
Astronomical Calendars: Link 1 * Link 2

10,000-Year Calendar

Rise & Set Times

Current Sky Events & Astro Phenomena

News: Astronomy, Space, Science --

Weekly: SpaceWatchtower Blog

Daily: SpaceWatchtower Twitter Feed

History of Pittsburgh's Original
Buhl Planetarium and Institute of Popular Science

Astronomy Links

Science Links


a.m. = Ante-Meridiem (Morning: Midnight to a moment before Noon)

p.m. = Post-Meridiem (Afternoon & Evening: a moment after Noon to a moment before Midnight of the next day)

EST = Eastern Standard Time *** EDT = Eastern Daylight Saving Time *** UTC = Coordinated Universal Time

SPECIAL NOTES:
(1) All astronomical or sky observations are always weather-permitting.
(2) For calendar entries which describe a relationship between two or more celestial objects, unless otherwise noted all relationships between celestial objects are visual relationships as seen from Earth only.


* March 19 to April 30, September 24 through November 5 - Tsunami Preparedness Weeks. (mid-March through April, mid-September through early November)

* Sept. 26 to Oct. 4 - National Drive Electric Week. (Week of September and / or October, including the whole weekends on both ends of the week)

* October through December - The Rut, White-Tailed Deer Mating Season - Vehicle drivers should be on the look-out for deer running across streets and highways. (Oct. through Dec.)

* Oct. 1 to 5 - National Customer Service Week.

* Thur., Oct. 1 (1847), 10:50 p.m. (Massachusetts time) - America's first professional woman astronomer, Maria Mitchell, discovered Miss Mitchell's Comet. (Oct. 1)

* Thur., Oct. 1 (1958) - Anniversary: Official establishment of NASA, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, as America's civilian space agency, from the predecessor, the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) which had been formed in 1915. (Oct. 1)
NASA: Link 1 *** Link 2.

* Thur., Oct. 1 - Median date for first Fall frost for locations in the Allegheny Mountains of Pennsylvania, West Virginia, and Maryland, as well as northern counties in Pennsylvania. (Oct. 1)

* Thur., Oct. 1 - First day of U.S.A. Federal Fiscal Year. (Oct. 1)

* Thur., Oct. 1 - First day of Calendar Year Fourth Quarter. (Oct. 1)

* Thur., Oct. 1, Evening - Mid-Autumn Festival / Moon Festival - A popular harvest festival celebrated by Chinese and Vietnamese people, dating back over 3,000 years to Moon worship in China's Shang Dynasty. It is celebrated on the date close to the Autumnal Equinox of the Solar Calendar, as well as close to the Full Moon Phase. (Close to September or October Full Moon and Autumnal Equinox)

* Thur., Oct. 1, 5:05 p.m. EDT / 21:05 UTC - Primary Moon Phase: Full Moon - Harvest Moon (The Harvest Moon occurs each year within 15 days of the Autumnal Equinox, on the night of the Full Moon between early September to early October of the Gregorian Calendar)
[This year, the Harvest Moon is on October 1, as the Full Moon in October is closer to the Autumnal Equinox than is the September Full Moon; hence, the Hunter's Moon is the Full Moon of October 31 this year, which is also a Blue Moon (second Full Moon in one calendar month) as well as Halloween (fourth and last cross-quarter day of the year).]

* Fri., Oct. 2 (1925) - First test of a working Television receiver. (Oct. 2)

* Fri., Oct. 2 - Manufacturing Day℠. (Friday in first week of October)

* Fri., Oct. 2, 8:00 p.m. EDT / Oct. 3, 0:00 UTC - Venus 0.09 degree south of Star Regulus.

* Fri., Oct. 2, 11:00 p.m. EDT / Oct. 3, 3:00 UTC - Mars 0.7 degree north of the Moon; occultation: South America (southern and southeastern sections), most of the western section of Antarctica, Ascension Island, Africa (southwestern portion).

* Oct. 3 to 11 - Biology Week. (First full week in October, including both full weekends on both sides of the week)

* Sat., Oct. 3 - Ostomy Awareness Day. (Oct. 3)

* Sat., Oct 3 - American Graduate Day. (First Saturday in October)

* Sat., Oct. 3 - Cassette Store Day. (First Saturday in October)

* Sat., Oct. 3, 1:00 p.m. EDT / 17:00 UTC - Moon at Apogee: 252,476.8 statute miles / 406,322 kilometers.

* Oct. 4 to 10 - World Space Week. (Oct. 4 to 10)

* Oct. 4 to 15 (1582) - Anniversary of original Gregorian Calendar Reform: the Julian Calendar day Thursday,1582 October 4 O.S. (Old System) was followed by the first day of the Gregorian Calendar, Friday, 1582 October 15 N.S. (New System). The British Empire, including the American Colonies, adopted the Gregorian Calendar when Wednesday, 1752 September 2 O.S. was followed by Thursday, 1752 September 14. N.S. Gregorian Calendar enacted by Roman Catholic Church to bring the calendar back into synchronization with the seasons. (Oct. 4 to 15)

* Oct. 4 to 10 - National Employ the Physically Handicapped Week. (First week of October)

* Oct. 4 to 10 - Mental Illness Awareness Week (MIAW) / Mental Health Awareness Week. (First Full Week of October)

* Oct. 4 to 10 - National Metric Week. [Week containing Oct. 10 (10-10)]

* Oct. 4 to 10 - Newspaper Week. (First full week of Oct., Sun. to Sat.)

* Oct. 4 to 10 - Teen Read Week. (Second or Third week of October)

* Oct. 4 to 10 - Fire Prevention Week. (Week, from Sunday to Saturday, which includes October 9)

* Sun., Oct. 4 (1957) - Anniversary of the beginning of the Space Age with the first successful launch and orbit of an artificial satellite, Sputnik 1, by the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (the country today known by their traditional name, Russia). (Oct. 4)

* Sun., Oct. 4, 5:00 a.m. EDT / 9:00 UTC - Uranus 3 degrees north of the Moon.

* Mon., Oct. 5 - World Teachers' Day. (Oct. 5)

* Mon., Oct. 5 - World Architecture Day. (First Monday of October)

* Mon., Oct. 5 - U.S. Supreme Court begins new term. (First Monday in October)

* Mon., Oct. 5 (1962) - Global James Bond Day. (Oct. 5: Anniversary of 1962 release of motion picture, "Dr. No")

* Tue., Oct. 6 - News Engagement Day. (First Tuesday in October)

* Tue., Oct. 6, 10:00 a.m. EDT / 14:00 UTC - Mars' closest approach to Earth until 2035. Mars will be at its brightest in the sky at apparent visual magnitude -2.6.with a disk size of 22.6 seconds of arc, just 3.5 light-minutes away.

* Wed., Oct. 7 - International Walk-to-School Day. (First Wednesday in October)

* Wed., Oct. 7, 9:00 to 10:30 p.m. EDT / Sept. 30, 1:00 to 2:30 UTC - Only 2020 U.S. Vice Presidential Debate to be heard and seen on several radio (Including - Networks: ABC, CBS. NPR) and television (Including - Networks: ABC, CBS, FOX, NBC, PBS; Cable News Channels: C-SPAN, CNN, FOX News, MSNBC) networks, in addition to the World Wide Web of the Internet. Debaters: Former U.S. Vice President and former U.S. Senator Joe Biden (Democratic Party Nominee): businessman, real estate tycoon, and incumbant U.S. President Donald J. Trump (Republican Party Nominee). (Late September of U.S. Presidential Election Years) Other 2020 Presidential Debates on Sept. 29, Oct. 15 & 22.

* Wed., Oct. 7, 11:00 p.m. EDT / Oct. 8, 3:00 UTC (Best viewing: Midnight to Dawn) - Peak of October Draconid Meteor Shower. (Oct. 7 to 8)

* Thur., Oct. 8 - National Depression Screening Day® (NDSD) . (Thursday of Mental Illness Awareness Week)

* Thur., Oct. 8, 4:00 p.m. EDT / 20:00 UTC - Moon 0.02 degree south of Open Star Cluster M35.

* Fri., Oct. 9 - World Egg Day. (Second Friday in October)
Also see: Embryology "Chick Hatching" Exhibit at Pittsburgh's original Buhl Planetarium and Institute of Popular Science.

* Fri., Oct. 9 - Leif Erikson Day honors the Norse explorer who brought the first Europeans known to have set foot in North America. (Oct. 9)

* Fri., Oct. 9 - Fire Prevention Day. (Oct. 9)

* Fri., Oct. 9, 8:39 p.m. EDT / Oct. 10, 0:39 UTC - Primary Moon Phase: Last Quarter.

* Oct. 10 to 18 - Week of Non-Violence. (Second full week of October, including Saturday and Sunday of both weekends on both sides of the week)

* Sat., Oct. 10 - National Metric Day. (10-10)

* Sat., Oct. 10 - Newspaper Carrier Day. (Saturday of Newspaper Week, which is first full week of Oct., Sun. to Sat.)

* Sat., Oct. 10 - World Mental Health Day. (Oct. 10)

* Sat., Oct. 10 - Indie Author Day. (Second Saturday in October)

* Oct. 11 to 17 - Earth Science Week. (Second full week of October)

* Sun., Oct. 11 - International Day of the Girl Child. (Oct. 11)

* Sun., Oct. 11 - Clergy Appreciation National Day of Honoring. (Second Sunday in October)

* Oct. 12 to 16 - Solar Week. (Mid-to-Late March; Mid-to-Late October: weekdays)

* Mon., Oct. 12 - Anniversary: Chistopher Columbus Day. (Oct. 12)

* Mon., Oct. 12 - Chistopher Columbus Day Observed: Federal Holiday in U.S.A. (Second Monday in October).
* Mon., Oct. 12 - Indigenous Peoples' Day - Observed by some communities as an alternative to Christopher Columbus Day. (Second Monday in October)

* Mon., Oct. 12 - Thanksgiving Day (Canadian): Federal Holiday in Canada. Canadian Thanksgiving Day is about a month earlier than American Thanksgiving Day, due to the earlier harvest in the far northern latitudes. (Second Monday in October)

* Oct. 13 to 16 - Ada Lovelace Week - Celebrates the achievements, in general, of women in STEM careers (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics), and in particular, in memory of Ada Lovelace, the first computer programmer. (Week including the second Tuesday of October)

* Tue., Oct. 13 - Ada Lovelace Day - Celebrates the achievements, in general, of women in STEM careers (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics), and in particular, in memory of Ada Lovelace, the first computer programmer. (Second Tuesday of October)

* Tue., Oct. 13 (1775) - Anniversary: Establishment of the U.S. Navy, originally the Continental Navy during the American Revolutionary War. (Oct. 13)

* Tue., Oct. 13, 7:00 p.m. EDT / 23:00 UTC - Mars at Opposition (Mars visible approx. local sunse to local sunrise, weather-permitting)

* Tue., Oct. 13, 8:00 p.m. EDT / Oct. 14, 0:00 UTC - Venus 4 degrees south of the Moon.

* Wed., Oct. 14 - Expedition 64, with NASA astronaut Kate Rubins and Russian cosmonauts Sergei Ryzhikov and Sergey Kud-Sverchkov, launches aboard the Soyuz MS-17 crew ship to the International Space Station from the Baikonur, Kazakhstan launch site.

* Wed., Oct. 14 (1947) - Chuck Yeager officially broke the sound barrier. (Oct. 14)
In 2012, At Age 89, Chuck Yeager AGAIN Breaks Sound Barrier.

* Wed., Oct. 14 - World Standards Day. (Oct. 14)

* Wed., Oct. 14 - National Fossil Day. (Oct. 14)

* Wed., Oct. 14, Before Morning Twilight - Zodiacal Light dimly visible in northern latitudes in eastern sky, before morning twilight, for next two weeks. (September, October)

* Thur., Oct. 15 - Equilux when considering Civil Twilight (Dawn before sunrise and Dusk after sunset) - When considering Civil Twilight, the day when daylFight and darkness, both, have the same length of hours and minutes. Occurs twice each year, approximately 23 days before the Vernal Equinox and 23 days after the Autumnal Equinox. (Feb. 25 to 26, Oct. 15)

* Thur., Oct. 15 (1582) - Roman Catholic Church instituted the Gregorian Calendar Reform. As part of the Reform, 10 days in October (October 5 through 14) were deleted for the year A.D. 1582, due to the 13 centuries of accumulated error causing a calendar drift of holidays (particularly Easter). In 1582, the date of October 4 (Julian Calendar) was followed the next day by October 15 (Gregorian Calendar). Great Britain and the American Colonies did not adopt the Gregorian Calendar Reform until September of 1752. (Oct. 15)

* Thur., Oct. 15 - Global Handwashing Day. (Oct. 15)

* Thur., Oct. 15 (1975) - Anniversary: Commencement by KQV-AM 1410, Pittsburgh (one of the nation's oldest radio stations, having started on 1919 November 19) of all-news radio broadcasting, until the radio station suspended broadcasting on 2017 December 31.: Link 1 *** Link 2 (Oct. 15)

* Thur., Oct. 15 - Get Smart About Credit Day. (Third Thursday in October)

* Thur., Oct. 15, 9:00 to 10:30 p.m. EDT / Sept. 30, 1:00 to 2:30 UTC - Second 2020 U.S. Presidential Debate to be heard and seen on several radio (Including - Networks: ABC, CBS. NPR) and television (Including - Networks: ABC, CBS, FOX, NBC, PBS; Cable News Channels: C-SPAN, CNN, FOX News, MSNBC) networks, in addition to the World Wide Web of the Internet. Debaters: Former U.S. Vice President and former U.S. Senator Joe Biden (Democratic Party Nominee): businessman, real estate tycoon, and incumbant U.S. President Donald J. Trump (Republican Party Nominee). (Late September of U.S. Presidential Election Years) Other 2020 Presidential Debates on Sept. 29 & Oct. 22; 2020 Vice Presidential Debate on Oct. 7.

* Fri., Oct. 16 - National Dictionary Day. (Oct. 16)

* Fri., Oct. 16 - World Food Day / Food Engineer Day. (Oct. 16)

* Fri., Oct. 16 - National Boss Day. (Oct. 16, unless date falls on weekend, then closest working day to Oct. 16)

* Fri., Oct. 16 (1957, 10:05 a.m. MST / 12:05 p.m. EST / 17:05 UTC) - U.S. Air Force successfully launches two man-made pellets beyond Earth's gravity into Solar Orbit, from an Aerobee rocket at the Hollornan Air Force Base in Alarnogordo, New Mexico.

* Fri., Oct. 16, 3:31 p.m. EDT / 19:31 UTC - Primary Moon Phase: New Moon - Lunation #1210.

* Fri., Oct. 16, 8:00 p.m. EDT / Oct. 17, 0:00 UTC - Moon at perigee: 221,774.8 statute miles / 356,912 kilometers.
Large Tides predicted along ocean coast-lines, due to close proximity to New Moon Primary Phase.

* Sat., Oct. 17 (1919) - Anniversary: Amateur radio station 8XK in Wilkinsburg, Pennsylvania, indirect predecessor to KDKA-AM Pittsburgh (world's first commercial radio station in 1920), started broadcasting in Pittsburgh region, after World War I restrictions on amateur radio were lifted by the Federal Government. (Oct. 17)

* Sat., Oct. 17 - Sweetest Day. (Third Saturday in October)

* Sat., Oct. 17, 5:26 p.m. EDT / 21:26 UTC - Double-shadow (shadows of 2 Galilean Moons) transit on Jupiter; visible, with difficulty, through telescope after sunset or before sunrise.

* Oct. 18 to 24 - National Chemistry Week (NCW). (3rd or 4th full week of October)

* Oct. 18 to 24 - National Friends of Libraries Week. (3rd or 4th full week of October)

* Oct. 18 to 24 - National School Bus Safety Week. (Third Week in October)

* Oct. 18 to 24 - National Teen Driver Safety Week. (Third full week of October)

* Oct. 18 to 24 - Male Breast Cancer Awareness Week. (Third full week of October)

* Oct. 18 to 24 - CHARACTER COUNTS! Week. (Third full week of October)

* Sun., Oct. 18 (1767) - Anniversary of the completion of the Mason-Dixon Line Survey, America's most famous boundary line [separating Pennsylvania from Maryland & Virginia (now West Virginia)], produced with the assistance of Astronomy. The Survey ended, prematurely, about 70 miles south of Pittsburgh, when the Native American guides of Astronomers Charles Mason and Jeremiah Dixon refused to enter their Indian enemy's territory. Philadelphia clock-maker and Astronomer David Rittenhouse, with Surveyor Andrew Ellicott, completed surveying the last 23 miles (to the southwest corner of Pennsylvania) in 1784. (Oct. 18}

* Sun., Oct. 18 - Feast Day of Saint Luke / brief period around October 18 known as Saint Luke's Little Summer, when there is often a short time of calm, dry weather, with mild temperatures. (Oct. 18)
Also see: Stage performance of "Saint Luke," during the historic Star of Bethlehem planetarium drama, at the time of the Christmas holidays at Pittsburgh's original Buhl Planetarium and Institute of Popular Science.

* Oct. 19 to 25 - National Estate Planning Awareness Week. (Sept. or Oct.)

* Mon., Oct. 19 - Great ShakeOut Earthquake Drills. (Oct. 19)

* Tue., Oct. 20 - World Statistics Day. (Oct. 20, every five years starting in 2010)

* Tue., Oct. 20 - Average end of the Growing Season for the Pittsburgh Quad-State Region (Western Pennsylvania, Eastern Ohio, Northern West Virginia, and Western Maryland, except at the higher elevations in the Allegheny Mountains). (Oct. 20)

* Wed., Oct. 21 - National Reptile Awareness Day. (Oct. 21)

* Wed., Oct. 21 - Global Ethics Day announced by the Carnegie Council for Ethics in International Affairs. (Third Wednesday in October)

* Wed., Oct. 21, 2:00 a.m. EDT / 6:00 UTC (Best viewing: Midnight to Dawn) - Peak of Orionid Meteor Shower - Remnants from Halley's Comet. (Oct. 21)
"Two-Timers," visitors to Pittsburgh's original Buhl Planetarium who saw Halley's Comet in both 1910 and in 1985 to 1986 (in 1985 to 1986 with a Buhl Planetarium telescope, including the historic 10-Inch Siderostat-Type Refractor Telescope).

* Thur., Oct. 22, 9:00 to 10:30 p.m. EDT / Sept. 30, 1:00 to 2:30 UTC - Third and final 2020 U.S. Presidential Debate to be heard and seen on several radio (Including - Networks: ABC, CBS. NPR) and television (Including - Networks: ABC, CBS, FOX, NBC, PBS; Cable News Channels: C-SPAN, CNN, FOX News, MSNBC) networks, in addition to the World Wide Web of the Internet. Debaters: Former U.S. Vice President and former U.S. Senator Joe Biden (Democratic Party Nominee): businessman, real estate tycoon, and incumbant U.S. President Donald J. Trump (Republican Party Nominee). (Late September of U.S. Presidential Election Years) Other 2020 Presidential Debates on Sept. 29 & Oct. 15; 2020 Vice Presidential Debate on Oct. 7.

* Thur., Oct. 22, 1:00 p.m. EDT / 17:00 UTC - Jupiter 2 degrees north of the Moon.

* Fri., Oct. 23 - Day of San Juan - Swallows leave Mission San Juan Capistano, California. (Oct. 23)

* Fri., Oct. 23 (1939) - Anniversary: Press Preview, prior to 1939 October 24 dedication of Pittsburgh's original Buhl Planetarium and Institute of Popular Science. (Oct. 23)
The original Buhl Planetarium included two historic astronomical instruments:
1) Zeiss II Planetarium Projector, the oldest operable major planetarium projector in the world ! (presently on display as a non-working exhibit).
2) Rather unique 10-inch Siderostat-type Refractor Telescope, which marked its 75th anniversary on 2016 November 19.

* Fri., Oct. 23 (2001) - IPOD Day. (Oct. 23)

* Fri., Oct. 23, 6:02 a.m. to 6:02 p.m EDT / 10:02 to 22:02 UTC - Mole Day, unofficial holiday celebrated among chemists, chemistry students, and chemistry enthusiasts, between 6:02 a.m. and 6:02 p.m., making the date 6:02 10/23 in the American style of writing dates. The time and date are derived from Avogadro's number, which is approximately 6.02 × 1023, defining the number of particles (atoms or molecules) in one mole (mol) of substance, one of the seven base SI units. (Oct. 23)

* Fri., Oct. 23, 12:00 Midnight EDT / 4:00 UTC - Saturn 3 degrees north of the Moon.

* Fri., Oct. 23, 9:23 a.m. EDT / 13:23 UTC - Primary Moon Phase: First Quarter.

* Oct. 24 to 31 - National Bat Week. (Week that includes Halloween Day: Oct. 24 to 31)

* Sat., Oct. 24 - World Polio Day (Oct. 24)

* Sat., Oct. 24 (1945) - Anniversary: Founding of the United Nations. (Oct. 24)

* Sat., Oct. 24 (1851) - Astronomer William Lassell discovered Uranus moons Ariel and Umbriel. (Oct. 24)

* Sat., Oct. 24 - National Forgiveness Day. (Fourth Saturday of October)

* Sat., Oct. 24, 10:00 a.m. to 2:00 p.m. Prevailing Local Time - National Prescription Drug Take-Back Days sponsored by the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration. (4th Saturday in September or October, 10:00 a.m. to 2:00 p.m. Prevailing Local Time)

* Sat., Oct. 24 (1939), 8:30 p.m. EST / Oct. 25, 1:30 UTC (Daylight Saving Time not observed in 1939) - Anniversary: Dedication of Pittsburgh's original Buhl Planetarium and Institute of Popular Science. (Oct. 24)
The original Buhl Planetarium included two historic astronomical instruments:
1) Zeiss II Planetarium Projector, the oldest operable major planetarium projector in the world ! (presently on display as a non-working exhibit).
2) Rather unique 10-inch Siderostat-type Refractor Telescope, which marked its 75th anniversary on 2016 November 19.

* Oct. 25 to 31 - Open Access Week. (Last full week of October)

* Oct. 25 to 31 - National Legal Pro-Bono Celebration Week. (Last week of October)

* Sun., Oct. 25 - Mother-in-Law Day. (Fourth Sunday in October)

* Sun., Oct. 25, 2:00 a.m. Prevailing Local Time (Daylight Saving Time) - DAYLIGHT SAVING TIME CONTINUES - Change in Federal law, thus that return to Standard Time occurs 2:00 a.m. Daylight Saving Time (which becomes 1:00 a.m. Standard Time) on the first Sunday in November (previously, last Sunday in October, 2:00 a.m. Prevailing Local Time).
Also see:
Some States to Abandon Daylight Saving Time ?
Science of Daylight Saving Time.

* Sun., Oct. 25 (1939), 10:00 a.m. EST / 15:00 UTC (Daylight Saving Time not observed in 1939) - Anniversary: Public Opening of Pittsburgh's original Buhl Planetarium and Institute of Popular Science. (Oct. 25)
The original Buhl Planetarium included two historic astronomical instruments:
1) Zeiss II Planetarium Projector, the oldest operable major planetarium projector in the world ! (presently on display as a non-working exhibit).
2) Rather unique 10-inch Siderostat-type Refractor Telescope, which marked its 75th anniversary on 2016 November 19.

* Sun., Oct. 25, 2:00 p.m. EDT / 18:00 UTC - Mercury in Inferior Conjunction with the Sun (Mercury not visible, even with a telescope).

* Tue., Oct. 27 (1858) - Navy Day, the date of the birthday of U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt, who served as Assistant Secretary of the Navy (1897 to 1898), wrote the book, The Naval War of 1812 (1882), and as President built-up the U.S. Navy as a world-class fighting fleet. (Oct. 27 is recognized as Navy Day in the U.S. Flag Code, for the display of the U.S. flag.). (Oct. 27)

* Tue., Oct. 27 - World Day for Audiovisual Heritage. (Oct. 27)

* Tue., Oct. 27 - Occupational Therapy Day. (Oct. 27)

* Tue., Oct. 27 - National Potato Day. (Oct. 27)

* Oct. 28 & 29 (1929) - Black Monday (Oct. 28) & Black Tuesday (Oct. 29) Wall Street Stock Market Crash of 1929. (Oct. 28 & 29)

* Thur., Oct. 29 (1969) - Anniversary: Connection of the first two nodes of the ARPANET, which led to the formation of the Internet. (Oct. 29)

* Thur., Oct. 29 - National Cat Day. (Oct. 29)

* Thur., Oct. 29, 12:00 Noon EDT / 16:00 UTC - Mars 3 degrees north of the Moon.

* Fri., Oct. 30, 3:00 p.m. EDT / 19:00 UTC - Moon at Apogee: 252,521.5 statute miles / 406,394 kilometers.

* Fri., Oct. 30 (1938), 8:00 p.m. EST / Oct. 31, 1:00 UTC (Daylight Saving Time not observed in 1938) - Anniversary: CBS Radio Network broadcast of Orson Welles' radio adaptation of the H.G. Wells science-fiction novel, The War of the Worlds, which caused a panic among some American listeners who thought the Earth was actually being invaded by beings from the Planet Mars. (Oct. 30)

* Sat., Oct. 31 - Venus at Perihelion.

* Sat., Oct. 31 - Scheduled launch of the NASA / SpaceX first operational (non-demonstration) Crew Dragon mission to the International Space Station, with Crew-1: NASA astronauts Michael Hopkins, Victor Glover and Shannon Walker and Japan's Soichi Noguchi.

* Oct. 31 / Nov. 1 / Nov. 2 - Traditional Astronomical Cross-Quarter Day Samhain or "All-Hallowsmas", better known as Halloween (Oct. 31 - "All Hallows Eve"), All-Saints Day (Nov. 1), All-Souls Day (Nov. 2) (fourth and last traditional cross-quarter day of year). Also, Oct. 31 - Anniversary (1517): Protestant Reformation Day.

What is a "Cross-Quarter Day" ?
What is the Astronomical significance of
Halloween, All-Saints Day, and All-Souls Day?
Link 1 *** Link 2 *** Link 3 *** Link 4
Actual Cross-Quarter Day.

* Sat., Oct. 31 - Dark Matter Day. (Oct. 31)

* Sat., Oct. 31, 9:00 a.m. EDT / 13:00 UTC - Uranus 3 degrees north of the Moon.

* Sat., Oct. 31, 10:49 a.m. EDT / 14:49 UTC - Primary Moon Phase: Full Moon - Hunter's Moon (smallest Full Moon of 2020).
[This year, the Harvest Moon is on October 1, as the Full Moon in October is closer to the Autumnal Equinox than is the September Full Moon; hence, the Hunter's Moon is the Full Moon of October 31 this year, which is also a Blue Moon (second Full Moon in one calendar month) as well as Halloween (fourth and last Cross-Quarter Day of the year).]

* Sat., Oct. 31, 12:00 Noon EDT / 16:00 UTC - Uranus at Opposition (Uranus visible approx. local sunset to local sunrise, weather-permitting).

* Sun., Nov. 1, 2:00 a.m. Prevailing Local Time (Daylight Saving Time) - DAYLIGHT SAVING TIME ENDS - Change in Federal law thus that return to Standard Time occurs 2:00 a.m. Daylight Saving Time (which becomes 1:00 a.m. Standard Time). (First Sunday in November, 2:00 a.m. Prevailing Local Time)
Some States to Abandon Daylight Saving Time ?
Science of Daylight Saving Time.

* Mon., Nov. 2 - Near-Earth Asteroid 2018 VP1 predicted to pass Earth, with no risk of collision. NASA says this asteroid is too small to do any damage on Earth, even if it collided with our planet.

* Tue., Nov. 3 - General Election Day (First Tuesday after the first Monday in November):
U.S. Presidential Election.

* Sat., Nov. 7, 5:56 p.m. EST / 22:56 UTC - Actual Astronomical Cross-Quarter Day (fourth and last actual cross-quarter day of the year: ~Nov. 6-7).
Traditional Cross-Quarter Day.

Return to History of The Buhl Planetarium and Institute of Popular Science, Pittsburgh

Astronomical Calendar - A.D. 2020

Authored By Glenn A. Walsh *** Sponsored By Friends of the Zeiss
Electronic Mail: < astrocalendar@planetarium.cc > *** Internet Web Cover Page: < http://www.planetarium.cc >
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2020 January

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History of Andrew Carnegie and Carnegie Libraries

Historic Duquesne Incline cable-car railway, Pittsburgh

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